The unique structural and functional properties of Nbs make them as efficient tool for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes

The unique structural and functional properties of Nbs make them as efficient tool for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This tiny but critical part of Abs is produced using high throughput antibody phage display (APD) technology (10). Currently, microbial detection methods are often time-consuming, expensive, laborious and inadequate specificity and sensitivity (11, 12). Recently, oligo nucleotide-based using DNA or RNA aptamers, have been developed provided further insight into the binding of short nucleic acid ligands to their target proteins. Aptamers are produced the process of Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX) was introduced in 1990 (13).They are potential in fields of diagnosis, imaging, and targeted therapy as well (14).