MUHIMBILI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED SCIENCES SCHOOL OF NURSING NAME

MUHIMBILI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH AND ALLIED SCIENCES
SCHOOL OF NURSING
NAME; MUSSA TATIZO
REG NO; 2015-04-08777
SUPERVISOR; DR.LILIAN MSELE {PHD}

TITLE: USE AND KNOWLEDGE OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING AT MNAZI MMOJA HOSPITAL {MMH}.

DECLARATION
I’m third year student taking Bsc in midwifery. I declare that this dissertation is my original work and has not been published or submitted elsewhere for same or other purposes. The contribution of other people in preparation of this work are quoted and acknowledged.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background information about research topic

Problem statement

Research objectives
Broad objectives
Specific objectives

Specific research questions
Research hypothesis

Conceptual framework
Literature review
Introduction
Background
Family planning is the basic right of human being. It involves decision regarding the number of and desired space between children by the couple themselves(Memon, Hamid, ; Kumar,2017) .Methods of contraception include those which do not require medical consultation, like coitus interruption, condom, rhythm method, vaginal spermicidal, and tampons. Methods that require medical supervision include systemic contraceptives, intrauterine devices, occlusive diaphragm and caps, permanent methods include tubal ligation and vasectomy. Male condom is among the commonly used method of contraception because of its availability and prevention of other sexual transmitted diseases. Quality services involving multiple dimensions build the confidence of the clients and is one of the constraints behind incomplete coverage of family planningADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Memon”, “given” : “Arbia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hamid”, “given” : “Saima”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kumar”, “given” : “Ramesh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “626-629”, “title” : “ORIGINAL ARTICLE CLIENT SATISFACTION AND DECISION MAKING AMONGST FEMALES VISITING FAMILY PLANNING CLINICS IN HYDERABAD , PAKISTAN”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “29” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=30390e52-08c9-499a-8f5d-6f801b4fb947”, “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7941786b-0c0f-4b9c-b4d5-97092aaa6b02” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Memon, Hamid, & Kumar, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Memon, Hamid, & Kumar, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Memon, Hamid, & Kumar, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Memon, Hamid, ; Kumar, 2017). The government of Tanzania began to integrate family planning into maternal and child health care services in 1988ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2307/2991943”, “ISBN” : “01675923”, “ISSN” : “01903187”, “abstract” : “——————– Context: Family planning communications campaigns have been shown to increase contraceptive use, but it remains unclear whether exposure to messages about contraception through multiple media sources has a greater impact than exposure through one medium. Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of 4,225 women who participated in the 1994 Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice Survey and in the 1991-1992 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey were used to assess the impact of mass media family planning campaigns on contraceptive behavior. A bivariate analysis was conducted to study the association between social and demographic characteristics, family planning communications campaigns and contraceptive behavior; multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between specific media campaigns and contraceptive use. Results: The more types of media that women are exposed to, the more likely they are to practice contraception. Women who recalled six media sources of family planning messages were 11 times as likely as women who recalled no media sources to be using modern contraceptives. Even women who recalled only one media source with a family planning message were twice as likely as women who recalled no media source to be using a modern method. Women who recalled family planning messages in the media were also more likely to have discussed family planning with their spouse and to have visited a health facility than were women who could not remember any such intervention. After introduction of controls for other variables, women who recalled radio messages about family planning were 1.7 times as likely as women who reported no exposure through radio programs to have discussed family planning with their spouse and were 1.9 times as likely to have been currently using family planning. Conclusions: Multiple media sources of information on contraception reinforce one another and extend the reach of a family planning campaign. Complementary messages may help to create an environment where the practice of contraception is perceived as a social norm. Varied media should continue to be used to promote family planning and other reproductive health issues.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jato”, “given” : “Miriam N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Simbakalia”, “given” : “Calista”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tarasevich”, “given” : “Joan M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Awasum”, “given” : “David N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kihinga”, “given” : “Clement N. B.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ngirwamungu”, “given” : “Edith”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Family Planning Perspectives”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “page” : “60”, “title” : “The Impact of Multimedia Family Planning Promotion on the Contraceptive Behavior of Women in Tanzania”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “25” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6c9b3b73-1959-4b11-81a3-cb004d87b4a5”, “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=970dfaf3-cb60-4e62-b7e9-d6844ae9998e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jato et al., 1999). It also worked worked to strengthern family planning services by training service providers. In 1992, the government adopted a national population policy calling for wider dissemination for family planning informationADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2307/2991943”, “ISBN” : “01675923”, “ISSN” : “01903187”, “abstract” : “——————– Context: Family planning communications campaigns have been shown to increase contraceptive use, but it remains unclear whether exposure to messages about contraception through multiple media sources has a greater impact than exposure through one medium. Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of 4,225 women who participated in the 1994 Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice Survey and in the 1991-1992 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey were used to assess the impact of mass media family planning campaigns on contraceptive behavior. A bivariate analysis was conducted to study the association between social and demographic characteristics, family planning communications campaigns and contraceptive behavior; multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between specific media campaigns and contraceptive use. Results: The more types of media that women are exposed to, the more likely they are to practice contraception. Women who recalled six media sources of family planning messages were 11 times as likely as women who recalled no media sources to be using modern contraceptives. Even women who recalled only one media source with a family planning message were twice as likely as women who recalled no media source to be using a modern method. Women who recalled family planning messages in the media were also more likely to have discussed family planning with their spouse and to have visited a health facility than were women who could not remember any such intervention. After introduction of controls for other variables, women who recalled radio messages about family planning were 1.7 times as likely as women who reported no exposure through radio programs to have discussed family planning with their spouse and were 1.9 times as likely to have been currently using family planning. Conclusions: Multiple media sources of information on contraception reinforce one another and extend the reach of a family planning campaign. Complementary messages may help to create an environment where the practice of contraception is perceived as a social norm. Varied media should continue to be used to promote family planning and other reproductive health issues.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jato”, “given” : “Miriam N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Simbakalia”, “given” : “Calista”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tarasevich”, “given” : “Joan M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Awasum”, “given” : “David N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kihinga”, “given” : “Clement N. B.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ngirwamungu”, “given” : “Edith”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Family Planning Perspectives”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “page” : “60”, “title” : “The Impact of Multimedia Family Planning Promotion on the Contraceptive Behavior of Women in Tanzania”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “25” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=970dfaf3-cb60-4e62-b7e9-d6844ae9998e”, “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6c9b3b73-1959-4b11-81a3-cb004d87b4a5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jato et al., 1999)
A private sector-sector condom marketing program began in 1992. These initiatives appear to had major impact on contraceptives. In less than three years, use of morden contraceptive methods nearly doubledADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2307/2991943”, “ISBN” : “01675923”, “ISSN” : “01903187”, “abstract” : “——————– Context: Family planning communications campaigns have been shown to increase contraceptive use, but it remains unclear whether exposure to messages about contraception through multiple media sources has a greater impact than exposure through one medium. Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of 4,225 women who participated in the 1994 Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice Survey and in the 1991-1992 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey were used to assess the impact of mass media family planning campaigns on contraceptive behavior. A bivariate analysis was conducted to study the association between social and demographic characteristics, family planning communications campaigns and contraceptive behavior; multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between specific media campaigns and contraceptive use. Results: The more types of media that women are exposed to, the more likely they are to practice contraception. Women who recalled six media sources of family planning messages were 11 times as likely as women who recalled no media sources to be using modern contraceptives. Even women who recalled only one media source with a family planning message were twice as likely as women who recalled no media source to be using a modern method. Women who recalled family planning messages in the media were also more likely to have discussed family planning with their spouse and to have visited a health facility than were women who could not remember any such intervention. After introduction of controls for other variables, women who recalled radio messages about family planning were 1.7 times as likely as women who reported no exposure through radio programs to have discussed family planning with their spouse and were 1.9 times as likely to have been currently using family planning. Conclusions: Multiple media sources of information on contraception reinforce one another and extend the reach of a family planning campaign. Complementary messages may help to create an environment where the practice of contraception is perceived as a social norm. Varied media should continue to be used to promote family planning and other reproductive health issues.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jato”, “given” : “Miriam N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Simbakalia”, “given” : “Calista”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tarasevich”, “given” : “Joan M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Awasum”, “given” : “David N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kihinga”, “given” : “Clement N. B.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ngirwamungu”, “given” : “Edith”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Family Planning Perspectives”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “page” : “60”, “title” : “The Impact of Multimedia Family Planning Promotion on the Contraceptive Behavior of Women in Tanzania”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “25” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=970dfaf3-cb60-4e62-b7e9-d6844ae9998e”, “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6c9b3b73-1959-4b11-81a3-cb004d87b4a5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jato et al., 1999). By 1994,contraceptive prevalence among women aged 15-49 was 11.3%, having risen from a level of 5.9% in 1992-1993ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.2307/2991943”, “ISBN” : “01675923”, “ISSN” : “01903187”, “abstract” : “——————– Context: Family planning communications campaigns have been shown to increase contraceptive use, but it remains unclear whether exposure to messages about contraception through multiple media sources has a greater impact than exposure through one medium. Methods: Data from a nationally representative sample of 4,225 women who participated in the 1994 Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice Survey and in the 1991-1992 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey were used to assess the impact of mass media family planning campaigns on contraceptive behavior. A bivariate analysis was conducted to study the association between social and demographic characteristics, family planning communications campaigns and contraceptive behavior; multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between specific media campaigns and contraceptive use. Results: The more types of media that women are exposed to, the more likely they are to practice contraception. Women who recalled six media sources of family planning messages were 11 times as likely as women who recalled no media sources to be using modern contraceptives. Even women who recalled only one media source with a family planning message were twice as likely as women who recalled no media source to be using a modern method. Women who recalled family planning messages in the media were also more likely to have discussed family planning with their spouse and to have visited a health facility than were women who could not remember any such intervention. After introduction of controls for other variables, women who recalled radio messages about family planning were 1.7 times as likely as women who reported no exposure through radio programs to have discussed family planning with their spouse and were 1.9 times as likely to have been currently using family planning. Conclusions: Multiple media sources of information on contraception reinforce one another and extend the reach of a family planning campaign. Complementary messages may help to create an environment where the practice of contraception is perceived as a social norm. Varied media should continue to be used to promote family planning and other reproductive health issues.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jato”, “given” : “Miriam N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Simbakalia”, “given” : “Calista”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Tarasevich”, “given” : “Joan M.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Awasum”, “given” : “David N.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kihinga”, “given” : “Clement N. B.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ngirwamungu”, “given” : “Edith”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Family Planning Perspectives”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “page” : “60”, “title” : “The Impact of Multimedia Family Planning Promotion on the Contraceptive Behavior of Women in Tanzania”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “25” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=970dfaf3-cb60-4e62-b7e9-d6844ae9998e”, “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6c9b3b73-1959-4b11-81a3-cb004d87b4a5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jato et al., 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jato et al., 1999)

Problem statement
Tanzania has high fertility rate of 5.2 according to the findings of 2015-2016 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicator Survey 2015-2016 TDHS-MISADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Survey”, “given” : “Health”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Survey”, “given” : “Malaria Indicator”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Findings”, “given” : “Key”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Tanzania”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=acb9a3bd-c1da-4cd5-a7ff-024a51c52096” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Survey, Survey, & Findings, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Survey, Survey, & Findings, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Survey, Survey, & Findings, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Survey, Survey, ; Findings, 2015). This indicates that regardless the efforts done by Tanzania government on family planning a need for further studies is required in order to establish the root cause of high fertility. In Tanzania there is several factors that could hinder the availability and use of family planning methods, which can be attributed to;
-problem in getting contraceptive supplies
-access to family planning clinics
-social economic levels
-Values, culture and taboos
Currently the in Tanzania these methods of family planning are given free of charge so as to ensure that everybody is accessible to service. The use modern family planning methods has more than quadrupled since the first TDHS survey from 7% in 1991-92 to 32% in 2015-16ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Survey”, “given” : “Health”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Survey”, “given” : “Malaria Indicator”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Findings”, “given” : “Key”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Tanzania”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=acb9a3bd-c1da-4cd5-a7ff-024a51c52096” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Survey et al., 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Survey et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Survey et al., 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Survey et al., 2015) .

3. Research objectives
3.1 broad objective
To determine use and knowledge of contraceptive among women attending clinic at Mnaz mmoja hospital
3.2 Specific objectives
i/ To determine prevalence of contraceptive use by age
ii/ to study the frequency distribution of different method of contraception currently used by the women
iii/ To study the proportion of women with knowledge about contraceptive knowledge about contraceptive methods by age
iv/ To find out the reasons for the desired method of contraception
v/ To determine the proportion of women with knowledge about importance of family planning by age
vi/ To see the association between level of knowledge of contraceptive methods and contraceptive use.

Vii/ To determine attitudes towards contraceptive use among women of reproductive age
Viii/ To find out association between contraceptive use and attitudes towards contraception.

Ix/ To determine the reasons for non-use of contraceptive methods.

Specific research questions
The study will answer the following questions:
i/ To what extent the reproductive aged women are aware on family planning methods?
Ii/ What are the prevalence of women using contraceptive methods at MMH
III/ What are the association between contraceptive use and attitudes towards contraception
Iv/ What are the reasons for non-use of contraceptive methods
5. Hypothesis Alternative hypothesis
The reproductive aged women have limited knowledge on family planning methods
Variables
Dependent variables; Contraceptive use, family planning methods
Independent variables; Reproductive aged women, level of education, level of knowledge on contraceptive use
6. Conceptual framework
A conceptual framework is like a map for guiding data collection, organization and
more importantly, data analysis. It represents the factors or variables, the interlinkagesbetween them and how they influence the phenomenon of unintended
fertility. The literature review has helped us to formulate a framework for the study of
unintended pregnancies and births regarding the use and knowledge about contraceptive methods of family planning
Dependent variable; contraceptive use is interlinkage with various independent variables such as level of knowledge, level of education, economy, norms culture and taboos. Emerging trends among couples is to want and have smaller families and plan
The number of children with a particular sex composition to their best advantage. It becomes a complex and challenging task for couples to reconcile.

Their sexual desires with their intention or reluctance to conceive a child at a particular
time. As a result unintended pregnancies can occur if the couples are not using
Contraception or if using then due to its ineffectiveness. In such a situation, if induced
Abortion is not a viable option, unintended births take place. Therefore non-use of
Contraception and contraceptive ineffectiveness are the two immediate causes of
Unwanted pregnancy and without induced abortion – of unintended births. The use or
Non-use of contraception is a proximate determinant of fertility and acts as an
Intervening variable together with contraceptive effectiveness through which the
Predictor variables influence the response variable of unintended birth. See the table below

Level of Knowledge on contraceptive use

Level of education

DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Contraceptive use

Social, economic and attitude

Age, norms, culture and taboo

………

7. Literature review
The study conducted in Arumeru district, Tanzania about the media on contraceptive use revealed that, the assumption that Contraceptive knowledge is closely associated with exposure to media which shows that media channels appear to have major impacts on contraceptive useADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mwejuma”, “given” : “Isa Sekro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mosha”, “given” : “P E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Msuya”, “given” : “S M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “173-180”, “title” : “Effects of Multimedia Family Planning Promotion on Women Contraceptive Use in Arumeru District”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “32” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1b0b46c7-dead-4591-8365-94f25f389ef9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma, Mosha, & Msuya, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma, Mosha, & Msuya, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma, Mosha, & Msuya, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mwejuma, Mosha, ; Msuya, 2017). In less than three years, use of modern contraceptive methods nearly doubled in most of sub-Saharan countries due to promotion of contraceptive use through multimedia.

Likewise, in the year 2010 the Contraceptive prevalence (% of women ages 15-49) in Tanzania was reported to be 34.40%ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mwejuma”, “given” : “Isa Sekro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mosha”, “given” : “P E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Msuya”, “given” : “S M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “173-180”, “title” : “Effects of Multimedia Family Planning Promotion on Women Contraceptive Use in Arumeru District”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “32” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1b0b46c7-dead-4591-8365-94f25f389ef9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mwejuma et al., 2017)
in which about 21.5% of the total percent is due to media promotions while the rest percent is due to Health education services (TDHS,2010).

in the study area due to the reason that their mostly promoted through media which area mostly accessible to the people hence reveals the assumption that women who recall messages in several media promoting family planning methods are exposed to a higher dose of family planning (Contraceptive use) information and are more likely to adapt than those exposed to only a few or no media sources that could promote women contraceptive use (Charles, 2012).ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mwejuma”, “given” : “Isa Sekro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mosha”, “given” : “P E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Msuya”, “given” : “S M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “173-180”, “title” : “Effects of Multimedia Family Planning Promotion on Women Contraceptive Use in Arumeru District”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “32” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1b0b46c7-dead-4591-8365-94f25f389ef9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mwejuma et al., 2017)
The most common way used by media in promoting contraceptive use was reported to be audio serial drama used by radio to promote contraceptive use while video drama was mostly used by television, printed articles was mostly used in newspapers while printed materials was used by posters to promote women contraceptive useADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mwejuma”, “given” : “Isa Sekro”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mosha”, “given” : “P E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Msuya”, “given” : “S M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “173-180”, “title” : “Effects of Multimedia Family Planning Promotion on Women Contraceptive Use in Arumeru District”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “32” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=1b0b46c7-dead-4591-8365-94f25f389ef9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Mwejuma et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Mwejuma et al., 2017). This is to say since the most used media is radio and posters this means the common approach is audio serial drama and printed materials this is also imply why most of the people adopted use of condom due to the reason that it is highly promoted through these approach which seems to be influential, understandable and adaptable to most of the people in the study.

Tanzania like other sub-Saharan countries has a very low practice of family planning methods despite the efforts done by the Ministry of health. However, there has been a gradual increase in the levelof use of modern family planning methods among women in recent years ranging from 10% in 1991, to 25% in 2002, and 30% in 2015ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Survey”, “given” : “Health”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Survey”, “given” : “Malaria Indicator”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Findings”, “given” : “Key”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Tanzania”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=acb9a3bd-c1da-4cd5-a7ff-024a51c52096” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Survey et al., 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Survey et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Survey et al., 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Survey et al., 2015)
Another study conducted in llorin, NigeriaThe came with a greater understanding of the determinants of re- productive behavior in Ilorin, and illustrates both the accomplishments of and challenges to a recently enacted Nigerian population policy. Many of these findings are contrary to what one would expect based on the traditional views of the attitudes of African men towards child- bearingADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Knowledge”, “given” : “Family Planning”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mccarthy”, “given” : “James”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “50-54”, “title” : “Family Planning Knowledge , Attitudes And Practices of Males in llorin ,”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d5aa33f-8c5b-4780-b95b-e49d6dc94eb2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Knowledge & Mccarthy, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Knowledge & Mccarthy, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Knowledge & Mccarthy, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Knowledge ; Mccarthy, 2015). the data reveal that the vast majority of men in Ilorin are aware of the concept of fertility regulation, but that a smaller proportion have detailed knowledge of specific methods of contraception. Their knowledge has been acquired fairly recently, usually through radio or television showsADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Knowledge”, “given” : “Family Planning”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mccarthy”, “given” : “James”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “50-54”, “title” : “Family Planning Knowledge , Attitudes And Practices of Males in llorin ,”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d5aa33f-8c5b-4780-b95b-e49d6dc94eb2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Knowledge & Mccarthy, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Knowledge & Mccarthy, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Knowledge & Mccarthy, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Knowledge ; Mccarthy, 2015). The extensive media campaigns in Ilorin and Kwara State in recent years have clearly reached a large part of the urban audience. However, most of the material presented in these radio and television spots is general. More detailed in- formation is typically provided at health centers and clinics, facilities that focus their services on women and children, and that are rarely visited by men. Although actual use of contraceptives is still not widespread among men in Ilorin, some men have used certain methods, particularly the condom. However, it is difficult to interpret the demographic significance of reported contraceptive use by men, for several reasons. First, we do not know the extent to which men are fully informed about their wives’ use of contraceptives. Reports on husband-wife communication suggest that husbands may not be aware of their wives’ contraceptive practiceADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Knowledge”, “given” : “Family Planning”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mccarthy”, “given” : “James”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “50-54”, “title” : “Family Planning Knowledge , Attitudes And Practices of Males in llorin ,”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9d5aa33f-8c5b-4780-b95b-e49d6dc94eb2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Knowledge & Mccarthy, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Knowledge & Mccarthy, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Knowledge & Mccarthy, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Knowledge ; Mccarthy, 2015). Furthermore, approximately 18 percent of the men interviewed report having more than one wife. Questions on men’s use of contraceptives do not ask if patterns of use are similar with all wives. In all likelihood, contraceptive use is not similar among all wives. Finally, we do not know the extent to which methods are used by married men as part of non-marital sexual activity. Since the condom is the method most commonly reported by men, it is possible that much of this use is out- Sid e marriage.

Family planning programs should also consider assessment of attitude and economic condition of target audience to increase continued utilization of servicesADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Memon”, “given” : “Arbia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hamid”, “given” : “Saima”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kumar”, “given” : “Ramesh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “626-629”, “title” : “ORIGINAL ARTICLE CLIENT SATISFACTION AND DECISION MAKING AMONGST FEMALES VISITING FAMILY PLANNING CLINICS IN HYDERABAD , PAKISTAN”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “29” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7941786b-0c0f-4b9c-b4d5-97092aaa6b02” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Memon et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Memon et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Memon et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Memon et al., 2017). Important aspect is not only access and utilization of services but is continuous use of services and family planning methods as dropout cases have been important during many studies an important aspect was due to the side effects of contraceptives. Females if do not have confidence on health worker and are not counselled about possible side effects will stop using contraceptive methods due to side effects and will drop out of the systemADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Memon”, “given” : “Arbia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hamid”, “given” : “Saima”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kumar”, “given” : “Ramesh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “626-629”, “title” : “ORIGINAL ARTICLE CLIENT SATISFACTION AND DECISION MAKING AMONGST FEMALES VISITING FAMILY PLANNING CLINICS IN HYDERABAD , PAKISTAN”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “29” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7941786b-0c0f-4b9c-b4d5-97092aaa6b02” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Memon et al., 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Memon et al., 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Memon et al., 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Memon et al., 2017), it is very important to build up such rapport so that clients immediately seek help from provider instead of dropping out due to fear. There is a dire need to focus on these aspects during training of health staff and ensure implementation during monitoring and supervision.

References:
ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Jato, M. N., Simbakalia, C., Tarasevich, J. M., Awasum, D. N., Kihinga, C. N. B., & Ngirwamungu, E. (1999). The Impact of Multimedia Family Planning Promotion on the Contraceptive Behavior of Women in Tanzania. International Family Planning Perspectives, 25(2), 60. https://doi.org/10.2307/2991943
Knowledge, F. P., & Mccarthy, J. (2015). Family Planning Knowledge , Attitudes And Practices of Males in llorin , 17(2), 50–54.

Memon, A., Hamid, S., & Kumar, R. (2017). ORIGINAL ARTICLE CLIENT SATISFACTION AND DECISION MAKING AMONGST FEMALES VISITING FAMILY PLANNING CLINICS IN HYDERABAD , PAKISTAN, 29, 626–629.

Mwejuma, I. S., Mosha, P. E., & Msuya, S. M. (2017). Effects of Multimedia Family Planning Promotion on Women Contraceptive Use in Arumeru District, 32(2), 173–180.

Survey, H., Survey, M. I., & Findings, K. (2015). Tanzania.