Mahatma Gandhi on Adult Education “In my opinion what we have reason to deplore and be ashamed of is not so much illiteracy as ignorance

Mahatma Gandhi on Adult Education
“In my opinion what we have reason to deplore and be ashamed of is not so much illiteracy as ignorance. Therefore for adult education I should have an intensive programme of driving out ignorance through carefully selected teachers with an equally carefully selected syllabus, according to which they would educate the adult villagers” mind. This is not to say that I would not give them a knowledge of the alphabet. I value it too much to despise or even belittle its merit as a vehicle of education.”
– 1937
“The primary need of those who are come of age and are following an avocation, is to know how to read and write. Mass illiteracy is India’s sin and shame and must be liquidated. Of course, the literacy campaign must not begin and end with a knowledge of the alphabet. It must go hand in hand with the spread of useful knowledge.”
– 1939
“The dry knowledge of the three R’s is not even now, it can never be, a permanent part of the villagers’ life. They must have knowledge given to them which they must use daily. It must not be thrust upon them. They should have the appetite for it. What they have today is something they neither want nor appreciate. Give the villagers village arithmetic, village geography, village history, and the literary knowledge that they must use daily, i.e. reading and writing letters, etc. They will treasure such knowledge and pass on to the other stages. They have no use for books which give them nothing of daily use.”
– 1940
CERTIFICATE OF THE SUPERVISOR
DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the work in this thesis titled “An Efficient Model and Management of Adult Education Program” has been conducted by me as per the regulations of Graphic Era University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management.

I further declare that the thesis or any part thereof has not been submitted previously to any other university for the award of a degree or diploma or title of recognition before and that it represents the original work done by me.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to take this opportunity to express my deepest gratitude to the almighty and appreciation to all the people who have contributed and supported in the completion of this thesis.
First of all, I wish to express my thanks to my supervisor, Dr. N. S. Bohra who has guided and supported me with his astute skills for nurturing me as an avid researcher. Without his direction completing the thesis within the time frame would not be possible. Acknowledgement also goes to __________________________ and ________________________ who supported and participated in the research, which enabled me to complete this work.
My family and friends are the foundation of my inspiration to complete the research work. I extend my deepest gratitude to my parents who have always shown their constant love and confidence on me.
Last but not the least, i thank all the participants, state government education department officials who helped me in completing this research work.

Shashti Ballabh Joshi
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TOC h z “Style1,1,Style2,2,Style3,3” INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc522326140 h 101.1 Meaning of Adult Education PAGEREF _Toc522326141 h 141.2 Global Perspective of Adult Education PAGEREF _Toc522326142 h 141.3 Adult Education in India PAGEREF _Toc522326143 h 171.3.1 Financing of Adult Education PAGEREF _Toc522326144 h 261.3.2 Volunteers PAGEREF _Toc522326145 h 301.3.3 Participation of NGOs PAGEREF _Toc522326146 h 311.3.4 Learners PAGEREF _Toc522326147 h 331.3.5 The Preraks PAGEREF _Toc522326148 h 351.3.6 Functionaries PAGEREF _Toc522326149 h 351.3.7 Monitoring and Evaluation PAGEREF _Toc522326150 h 36Review of the Literature, Research Gaps, Draw Backs in Existing Models and Need for New Model PAGEREF _Toc522326151 h 382.1 Review of Literature PAGEREF _Toc522326152 h 392.1.1 Theses from Universities in India PAGEREF _Toc522326153 h 402.1.2 Reports of Government departments and independent bodies PAGEREF _Toc522326154 h 662.2 Drawbacks in Existing Model PAGEREF _Toc522326155 h 682.4 Need for New Model PAGEREF _Toc522326156 h 69Proposed Model and Management in Volunteer Mode Program, Equivalency Skill Development, Adult Literacy and Life Long Learning Program PAGEREF _Toc522326157 h 713.1 Life Long Learning Program PAGEREF _Toc522326158 h 763.2 Major Programmes of NLM PAGEREF _Toc522326159 h 783.3 Saakshar Bharat Programme (SBP) PAGEREF _Toc522326160 h 79RESEARCH DESIGN PAGEREF _Toc522326161 h 824.1 Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc522326162 h 844.2 Hypotheses PAGEREF _Toc522326163 h 844.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc522326164 h 854.3.1 Research Design: PAGEREF _Toc522326165 h 864.3.2 Methods of Data Collection: PAGEREF _Toc522326166 h 874.3.3. Questionnaire for Primary data source: PAGEREF _Toc522326167 h 874.3.4 Sample Design, Sample Area and Sample Size: PAGEREF _Toc522326168 h 884.3.5. Data Collection and Analysis Techniques: PAGEREF _Toc522326169 h 904.4. Significance of the Research Work PAGEREF _Toc522326170 h 91DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION PAGEREF _Toc522326171 h 935.1 Secondary Data Analysis and Interpretation PAGEREF _Toc522326172 h 995.2 Primary Data Analysis and Interpretation PAGEREF _Toc522326173 h 1005.2.1. Learners Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc522326174 h 100FINDINGS PAGEREF _Toc522326175 h 2116.1 Hypotheses Testing PAGEREF _Toc522326176 h 2126.2 Findings of Secondary Data PAGEREF _Toc522326177 h 2146.3 Findings of Primary Data PAGEREF _Toc522326178 h 2156.3.1. Learners PAGEREF _Toc522326179 h 2156.3.2. Functionaries PAGEREF _Toc522326180 h 217SUGGESTIONS PAGEREF _Toc522326181 h 2247.1 Features of TIAE PAGEREF _Toc522326182 h 2277.2. TIAE’s ability to combat existing problems PAGEREF _Toc522326183 h 2307.3. Branding and Fresh Campaign for TIAE PAGEREF _Toc522326184 h 2327.4. Probable Challenge for TIAE PAGEREF _Toc522326185 h 233Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc522326186 h 2368.1. Limitations of the Research Work PAGEREF _Toc522326187 h 2418.2. Scope for future Research PAGEREF _Toc522326188 h 242APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc522326189 h 244BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGEREF _Toc522326190 h 245ANNEXURE A1 – QUESTIONNAIRE FOR LEARNERS PAGEREF _Toc522326191 h 253ANNEXURE- A2 DISTRICT COORDINATORS PAGEREF _Toc522326192 h 258ANNEXURE A3: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR VOLUNTARY TEACHERS (VT) PAGEREF _Toc522326193 h 266ANNEXURE A4: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRI Members/Block Coordinators PAGEREF _Toc522326194 h 275ANNEXURE A5: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRERAKS PAGEREF _Toc522326195 h 282ANNEXURE B – TEMPLATES PAGEREF _Toc522326196 h 290
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTIONIndia recognised education as a fundamental right with the enactment of Right to Education Act in 2010. It took almost 63 years, post independence to establish education as a fundamental right. Although, many efforts undertaken by central and state governments to provide education to all and to eradicate illiteracy from the country. Education is the foundation stone for social and economic development of a nation. Education improves the quality of life in terms of increase in life expectancy, increase in healthy living, increased nutritional levels of women and children, increased capability to contribute towards social, cultural and economic development. Education is a much wider term than literacy.
Literacy is the first step of learning which involves ability to read, write, use of language and learning of basic arithmetic. Thus, an illiterate person is one who is not able to do any of these activities. Post independence major focus has revolved around eliminating illiteracy from the society. Illiteracy was a major problem area for social, economical and environmental development of the country. In 1947, literacy rate in India was at 12 percent, which means, 88 out of every 100 people were not able to read, write and do basic arithmetic. As per 2011 census, literacy rate stands at 74.04 percent. From 1947 to 2011, India has come a long way in improving literacy rate across the nation. It is noteworthy to mention that India became second largest populated country within the same period; hence, the rise of literate population from 12 percent to 74.04 percent is certainly commendable. Still India stands below the world average literacy rate of 86.3 percent. Male literacy rate in India figured as 80.9 percent and for female at 72.1 percent, whereas world average stood at 90 percent and 86.3 percent for male and female respectively. In India, rural literacy rate reflects a mere 69 percent and urban literacy rate at 85 percent. Rural India with lack of infrastructure like, availability of schools / learning centres, proper road and transport facility, availability of learning tools, availability of basic civic amenities at the schools and availability of teachers and staff at the schools. Apart from these infrastructural factors other reasons for low literacy rate in rural areas is social, cultural, economic and conservative approach of the rural population. Learning of reading and writing skills, although necessary, but is not sufficient and does not fulfil the requirements of various segments of the population such as male, female, children, adults, tribal people, rural people, urban dwellers, farmers, labourers, language, religion, and demographic differences.
Education, on the other hand is a much wider term, which involves not only reading and writing but deeper knowledge of language, arithmetic and the ability to use learning in daily life. Education helps in increasing the overall living standard of the person and the people at large. Education is something more than mere reading and writing. Education is a process that ensures maintenance of balance on the grounds of personal, physical, emotional, social, environmental and economical paradigm of society. Education helps in establishing and maintaining ideologies of democracy, secularism, national integration and industrialisation. It enables individuals to adapt themselves by enhancing their creative participation in the process of changing environment of learning. The rapid and incessant changes of the present life situations have simply accentuated the need for education since life styles have become more complex which demand a systematic and multidisciplinary approach. Education is essential for every individual. Level of education and the knowledge acquired through education helps people to earn respect and recognition in the society. It is an indispensable part of life both personally and socially. The importance of education is undeniable as it always carries a positive impact on human life. With the advent of education, people can acquire their knowledge and gain more exposure in all aspects. Apparently, people become more civilized if they are well educated.
1.1 Meaning of Adult EducationAdult education refers to the illiterate population between the age group of 15years to 35 years. Illiterate adults are the outcome of failure of elementary and compulsory education programs. The educationists, who have conceptualized adult education, believe that formal education has not been able to achieve its objectives. Elementary education refers to the formal education, which is designed for children up-to 15 years of age. Hence, adult education can be referred as formal education for adults with difference in ways of teaching, Major focus on the execution of adult education started in 1950 with the objective of teaching 3Rs (reading, writing and arithmetic) to the illiterate population in the desired age group. Adult education, due to low literacy rate, majorly confined up-to adult literacy only. Although continuing education and skill development enhances the overall idea of adult education in India.
1.2 Global Perspective of Adult EducationUNESCO conceptualized adult education as follows: “Adult education has been associated with the teaching of literacy and with such remedial measures as the right school for adults, who have missed the opportunity for formal schooling”.
In 2006, UNESCO launched the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE), within the framework of United Nations Literacy Decade (UNLD, 2003-2012) as one of UNESCO’s three flagship initiatives dedicated to advancing the Education for All (EFA) agenda. One of the nine strategies proposed in the global LIFE Mid-Term Evaluation Report 20062011 has brought a clear focus on women to reduce gender disparities. The report also proposed that: UNESCO should support research on successful approaches to reducing gender disparities in adult literacy and the empowerment of women and promote the use of research evidence in the improvement of literacy provision.
In spite of persistent illiteracy, adult literacy rates have increased in all regions over the past two decades (see Statistical Table 1 and Figure 3). Globally, the adult literacy rate was 76% in 1990, 82% in 2000 and 84% in 2011. In individual EFA regions, the adult literacy rate evolved as follows:

In 2002, the United Nations proclaimed the UN Literacy Decade for the years 2003 to 2012 (UN General Assembly, 2002a, 2002b). Regional literacy data indicate that progress between 1990 and 2000 was generally stronger than since 2000. It is therefore not possible to state unambiguously that the UN Literacy Decade had a positive impact on literacy skills among the adult population.
In three regions – Arab States, South and West Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa – approximately one-half of all adults were illiterate in 1990. Since then, progress in these three regions has varied. In the Arab States, the adult literacy rate increased by 22% between 1990 and 2011, in South and West Asia, the adult literacy rate increased by 16% over the same period. In sub-Saharan Africa, progress was much more modest, with an increase in the adult literacy rate of only 6%. East Asia and the Pacific is approaching universal adult literacy, and Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia were already near universal literacy in 1990.
According to UNESCO Institute of Statistics data as published in July 2017, global adult literacy rates as on 2016 are as below:

Southern Asia is home to almost one-half of the global illiterate population (49%). In addition, 27% of all illiterate adults live in sub-Saharan Africa, 10% in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, 9% in Northern Africa and Western Asia, and about 4% in Latin America and the Caribbean. Less than 2% of the global illiterate population lives in the remaining regions combined (Central Asia, Europe and Northern America, and Oceania).

The lowest literacy rates are observed in sub-Saharan Africa and in Southern Asia. Adult literacy rates are below 50% in the following 20 countries: Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Iraq, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone and South Sudan. Youth literacy rates, for the population aged 15 to 24 years, are generally higher than adult literacy rates, reflecting increased access to schooling among younger generations. Nevertheless, youth literacy rates remain low in several countries, most of them in sub-Saharan Africa, which suggests problems with low access to schooling, early school leaving or a poor quality of education.

1.3 Adult Education in IndiaThe first nationwide programme for adult education, known as the National Adult Education Programme (NAEP), was introduced in 1978. However, the promise of the NAEP was not fulfilled (Ministry of Education and Culture, 1980). Though it was intended to be a mass programme of adult education, it never assumed the mass character as envisaged in the policy statement. In practice, the NAEP remained a traditional centre-based, honorarium-based, and hierarchical programme of adult education, funded and controlled by the government, and did not make a dent in promoting adult literacy. It was the National Policy on Education –1986 that created favorable policy environment for elementary education and adult education, and also brought female education to the forefront of development planning. This section highlights salient trends in the policy directives of adult education from the mid-1980s. The NPE (1986) has been a major landmark in the history of adult education as it widened the scope of adult education, and brought adult literacy to the forefront of educational planning. It articulated for the first time the national commitment to addressing the problem of eradicating adult illiteracy in a time-bound manner with planned, concerted and coordinated efforts. The policy provided impetus to development of a mass approach to eradication of literacy with mass mobilisation and support of divergent sections of society. Subsequently, the mandate of the NPE (1986) was operationalised through the National Literacy Mission (NLM), which was launched by the government in 1988. Given the magnitude of the task involved in promoting literacy among the vast population of non-literates, the Programme of Action – 1992 endorsed partnership between the government and civil society, and put forward the idea of a ‘technological and societal’ mission for eradication of illiteracy. It provided impetus to development of a campaign approach to promoting adult literacy.

The NLM was culmination of the national efforts to urgently address the problem of widespread illiteracy in the adult population through a massive intervention even before articulation of EFA goals in 1990. NLM from the inception emphasised the active participation of NGOs in its mission. However, until 1989 it continued with the centre-based approach of the earlier adult education programmes and did not have a clear vision about how to operationalise its mandate. The major breakthrough came in 1990 with the success of the mass literacy campaigns in Kerala, first in Kottayam city and then in Ernakulam district. These campaigns were spearheaded by Kerala Shastra Sahitya Parishad (KSSP), a voluntary organisation based on the people’s science movement in Kerala with the active cooperation of the local administration and large scale mobilisation of all sections of society. KSSP and Bharat Gyan Vigyan Samiti (BGVS), a voluntary organisation at the national level supported by the All India People’s Science Networks, were the key architects of the NLM’s campaign approach to literacy. BGVS played an important role in fostering active partnership between the district administration, volunteers, social activists, NGOs and community-based organisations (CBOs) in Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), and in shaping the TLC’s approach and strategy in the areas of environment-building, organisational and management structure, and monitoring and evaluation at the district, block and village levels. Subsequently, NLM adopted area- specific, time-bound and volunteers- based Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) with total coverage for the given age group, as a principle strategy for promoting literacy on a mass scale. Consequently, the direction of adult education programme shifted from the centre-based approach to the campaign approach.

The key to the unique features of TLC strategy were:
(1) Environment-building and mass mobilisation through kala jathas (cultural caravans), folk media, radio and television, personal contacts, conventions, rallies, etc. to generate social demand for literacy and involve wider sections of society in promoting literacy;
(2) Large-scale involvement of volunteers for literacy work; and
(3) Planning and implementation of TLCs at the district level through decentralised administrative and organisational structure of Zilla Saksharata Samiti.

The underlying assumption of the TLC approach was that intensive literacy campaigns would eradicate illiteracy across the country, irrespective of the structural context of underdevelopment, deprivation and the history of social movements. The NLM also introduced a technocratic pedagogic approach, known as Improved Pace and Content of Learning (IPCL) to address the problems of slow pace and poor quality of learning among adult learners (see GoI, 1993). The IPCL approach assumes that higher quality pedagogic inputs would improve the pace of learning and enable learners to acquire the expected level of literacy in about 200 hours as per the NLM norms.

In summary, even before the World Conference on Education for All at Jomtien (1990), promotion of adult literacy on a mass scale was an integral part of the government’s educational policy on basic education. Mass literacy campaign model was the main policy instrument to eradicate adult illiteracy. The NLM policy document envisaged nationwide expansion of post-literacy and continuing education through new institutional structures, better utilisation of the existing infrastructures and open and distance learning. However, initially the NLM did not pay adequate attention to devising appropriate strategies for linking literacy with post-literacy and continuing education. The government’s commitment to adult education continues to be programmatic. Unlike elementary education, the government has not paid attention to developing a sustainable system of adult education to promote literacy and continuing education among adults from disadvantaged and marginalised sections of society.

The NLM continues to emphasise women as an important target group for its programmes and gives priority to 45 districts with low female literacy. It advocates increasing and strengthening women’s participation in literacy, post- literacy and continuing education programmes to attain broader developmental goals. However, the policy is silent on the strategy to mainstreaming gender concerns in overall planning and implementation. Despite fragile levels of literacy attained through TLCs, and their sustainability in divergent social, political and economic context, the NLM assumes that TLCs have succeeded in making a large adult population literate. Based on this premise, NLM has shifted its attention to tackling the problem of ‘residual illiteracy’. The revamped policy adopts an integrated approach to make basic literacy, post-literacy and continuing education phases into a learning continuum. It is assumed that such approach would achieve continuity, efficiency and convergence and minimise necessary time lag between different phases of learning.

The focus of NLM’s strategy has shifted from mobilisation approach to managerial approach for implementation of literacy campaigns. Volunteers are no longer the backbone of literacy campaigns as emphasis has shifted to paid workers (preraks) with low wages.

There is a major change in the NLM policy, its emphasis being on decentralisation of management of adult education from the national to state and district levels and increase in involvement of PRIs, NGOs and the community in implementation of various programmes to meet the diversified learning needs of the community. Consequently,financialand administrative roles of the central and state governments, ZSS, PRIs, and other local bodies and NGOs are redefined for decentralised and disaggregatedplanning and implementation of various programmes. The policy emphasises greater role of PRIs, NGOs and the community in planning, implementation and monitoring of various programmes at the district level. It envisages that such institutional arrangements would facilitatedecentralised, de-bureaucratised and participatory mode of programme planning and implementation at various levels. Eventually, financing of literacy, post- literacy and continuing education programmes will be taken over by the state governments, panchayats, and/or the village community.

In essence, decentralisation is perceived primarily as a strategy for efficient management and delivery of the programmes than strengthening democratic participation in educational governance. The major thrust of NLM’s revised policy is on efficient management and delivery of various programmes through devolution of financial and administrative powers from national to state level, and strengthening and revamping of existing institutions, such as State Resource Centres, and Jan Shikshan Sansthans, for providing resource support to ongoing programmes. At the district level, partnership with the community, NGOs and panchayats is advocated essentially for efficient delivery of the programmes.Theproposed decentralisation strategy will expand the role of state governments, ZSS, PRIs and the local community in financing ongoing programmes and in supporting them in the long run. However, decentralisation without adequate devolution of powers to the local level, and without building capacity of people at different levels to effectively plan and manage various programmes is likely to further weaken overall provisions and implementation of these programmes. Overall, the focus has transformed from “eradication of illiteracy” (i.e. ‘total literacy’ in the selected age group) to removal of ‘residual illiteracy’ and from mobilisation approach to managerial approach in implementation of literacy campaigns. Continuing education is viewed as a key strategy for creating the learning society. On the other hand, devolution of financial and administrative powers from NLM to SLMA, and decentralisation of management of various programmes at the district level, and the expanded role of NGOs and community in programme implementation are some of the most crucial aspects of the revised policy of the NLM.

The policy reflects neo-liberal approach to governance of adult education programmes for efficient delivery of services, and diminishing political will of the central government to build a robust and expanded system of adult education for meeting divergent learning needs of the vast population of non- literate and neoliterate youth and adults on a sustainable basis.

Based on the revised NLM policy directives, the Tenth Plan (2002-07, GoI, 2002) continued the integrated literacy approach (TLC and post-literacy and continuing education) followed in the Ninth Plan and substantially increased scope of the programmes. It endorsed the NLM objective of attaining sustainable threshold level of 75% literacy by 2007. It suggested the two- pronged strategy: eradication of residual illiteracy, specifically among the population with high illiteracy (women, SCs, STs and other communities) and in low-literacy districts through the fast track initiatives, and development of need-based and target-specific programmes integrating literacy with vocational and technical skills and with income generation and quality of life improvement programmes. The Plan continued to advocate greater involvement of NGOs at all levels in the social sector and increase in people’s participation and ownership of various programmes, while limiting the role of the state to a facilitator. The mid-term appraisal of the Tenth Plan highlights slow pace of progress in achieving monitorable targets for health, education and gender equality (Planning Commission, 2005). There is, however, hardly any discussion on achievement of targets related to ‘eradication of illiteracy’.

The National Plan of Action (NPA), formulated in 2003 as a follow-up of the Dakar Framework of Action for EFA, attempted to link national policy goals and targets with the global targets of EFA (GoI, 2003). NPA (2003) highlights the government’s approach to meeting the Dakar goals for EFA with regard to adult literacy and life-long learning.

Reaffirming the importance given to elementary education in NPE (1986), the NPA (2003) gives the highest priority to achieving the goals of universalisation of elementary education. The plan emphasises removal of all disparities, including gender, and advocates more focused and gender-based interventions exclusively for girls and women. Overall, the NPA (2003) advocate two interrelated strategies for achieving the goals of universalisation of elementary education and promotion of ‘total’ literacy. First, it emphasises the preparation of contextualised and decentralised district-wise action plans to address local needs and demands and reaching the unreached. Second, it underscored active involvement of people in local-level EFA planning and implementation through democratic devolution of powers, particularly through Panchayati Raj Institutions (local self-governing bodies) or village education committees and school management bodies.

The Eleventh Plan (2007-12) envisages achieving faster, more broad-based and inclusive growth by focusing on reducing poverty and bridging various divides that exist in society (Planning Commission, 2008). Furthermore, the Eleventh Plan emphasises the need for assessing the quality of programmes implemented by NGOs and greater involvement of NYKs network and PRI network to fulfill the goal of adult literacy under the overall umbrella of TLCs. Thus, the task of promoting literacy appears to be left with NGOs and local institutions.

1.3.1 Financing of Adult EducationEarlier, the TLCs remained the government-sponsoredliteracy campaigns with high contribution of non- monetary inputs by the people (Varghese, 1997). Since the Ninth Plan, the government is advocating “cooperative-federalism”for implementation of various programmes in partnership between the central and state governments. There has been a realignment of responsibilities for financing and administration of adult education programmes. With the introduction of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment, Zilla Parishads have been made responsible for implementing various programmes of adult education. State governments are expected to play a much more active role in financing and administration of adult education. The extent to which resources are allocated to local bodies is likely to depend upon devolution of finances and powers by the state governments. Unlike primary education, the systems of adult education is not institutionalised yet as state governments are heavily dependent on the central government for creating and maintaining administrative structures at state/district levels for effective implementation of adult education programmes. Unless the government gives priority to adult education in educational planning, financing of adult education will remain uncertain.

In the Tenth Plan, the existing pattern of funding of literacy campaigns with funding ratio of 2:1 between the central and state governments has continued. The central government provides 100% financial assistance to continuing education for the first three years. Thereafter, the state government is expected to share 50% of the expenditure in the fourth and fifth years of the project. The policy is silent on how continuing education centres would be run beyond five years. The underlying assumption is that panchayats with the support of the community will mobilise resources for these centres.

With decentralisation of financial powers, there is a total reversal of the earlier fund transfer system from NLM directly to ZSS. Instead, the fund flow system for adult education programmes is from NLM to SLMA to ZSS. Such administrative arrangements have contributed to uncertainty and delays between sanction and receipt of funds and adversely affected programme implementation. Furthermore, the bureaucracy has also been responsible for utilisation of funds. The bureaucrats could facilitate timely approval and release of funds and play a proactive role or hinder the process of fund flows, depending on their interest and commitment to adult and continuing education. Frequent transfer of officials at the district level, their unfamiliarity with the accounting system of the Government of India, and administrative procedures often delay timely sanctions of the funds. Long delays in release of funds lead to deterioration of programme implementation and discontinuation of learning. Will devolution of financial powers from the central government to state governments and local bodies lead to withdrawal of the government’s support to adult education in the long run? Given programmatic approach to adult education, and high priority accorded to elementary education in achieving EFA goals, adult education is likely to a marginalised sector of basic education policy in India.

In sum, given priority assigned to universalisation of elementary education as a key strategy of attaining EFA goals, there appears to be apparent lack of bureaucratic and political will to capitalise the momentum created through TLCs and sustain the literacy movement. The state governments/UTs are not in a position to fully utilise the adult education budget in the absence of adequate institutionalised structures to promote literacy, post-literacy and continuing education on a sustained basis. Overall, low utilisation of the allocated budget reveals the dismal status of implementation of various adult education programmes. It suggests that adult education is no longer a priority either for the national government or the states/UTs. What is lacking is a strong political and bureaucratic will to invest in adult basic education, which is a public good and a basic human right. a perceptible shift is noticed in the NLM policy towards devolution of powers from the NLMA to State Literacy Mission Authority (SLMA), particularly with regard to financial sanctions of various projects of literacy, post-literacy and continuing education. With the devolution of financial and administrative powers at the state level, the SLMA is now the nodal agency for major policy decisions and strategies concerning management, monitoring and implementation of adult and continuing education. The NLM has attempted to rejuvenate the SLMA and empower it to approve continuing education projects and put funds at its disposal for these projects. SLMA is also authorised to sanction literacy related projects to voluntary agencies at the state level. Although SLMA’s role in financing,managementand implementation of adult and continuing education in the respective state has expanded, the policy directives are still determined by NLMA. Given low priority to adult education in basic education policy, devolution of powers to SLMA has not revitalised the programmes. It could be seen as a way for the central government to curtail its responsibility, while retaining the control over strategic policy decisions.

On the other hand, the State Resource Centres (SRCs) have been set up by the central government mostly under the aegis of NGOs to provide technical support and guidance to the ongoing programmes of adult education in the respective states. The role of SRCs has gradually expanded to undertake research, evaluation and monitoring of various programmes in different states and implementation of continuing education projects. Since the Ninth Plan, efforts have been made to revamp and strengthen the infrastructure and resource facilities of SRCs so that they could play catalytic role in adult education. However, with diminishing technical and resource support of the DAE for developing their capabilities, only a few SRCs have the capacity to pursue the new mandate.

1.3.2 VolunteersBasic literacy teaching through volunteers is underscored in TLC/PLC and continuing education phases. However, the existing framework reflects a loss of people’s movement character in imparting basic literacy and post-literacy education on a mass scale. Furthermore, introduction of paid project staff (for example, preraks/volunteer teachers) in continuing education appears to have shifted the focus away from voluntarism at the grassroots. With growing emphasis on paid functionaries in running the PL and CE centres, the involvement of volunteers has been reduced (Mathew, 2002). On the other hand, the community participation is encouraged for funding CEC and various activities for financial sustainability of CECs. With diminishing importance of volunteers in various programmes, there is growing bureaucratisation of programme planning and implementation.

1.3.3 Participation of NGOsEver since the launching of literacy as a ‘societal’ mission in 1988, the NLM has emphasised strengthening the partnership with NGOs and has evolved both institutional and information mechanisms to give voluntary agencies and NGOs an active promotional role in the literacy movement. Partnership with the NGOs was central to the success of TLCs in the earlier phase. Participatory organisational structures facilitated high level of participation of NGOs, and the community in the literacy movement. The government has continued to encourage NGOs to participate in various programmes and has provided financial support to NGOs for various activities through the Scheme of Support to NGOs to run post-literacy and continuing education programmes, However, ‘partnership’ with the NGOs is increasingly viewed by policy planners for management and implementation of literacy, post-literacy and continuing education projects. Thus, the NGOs are considered merely as ‘service providers’ and not as partners in policy formulation and planning.

The NLM has continued to endorse partnership between the government and civil society in implementation of TLC, PLP and CE. The organisational and management structure of NLM at different levels has created spaces for partnership between the government and civil society in planning and implementation of adult education programmes. However, with growing bureaucratisation of adult education programmes, its character as a people’s movement character of the earlier TLC model is lost. Notwithstanding active involvement of NGOs and CBOs in TLCs, their engagement in the EFA follow-up processes has been very limited (Kohli, 2003). Their rich experience in the literacy movements across the country has not been tapped for the development of effective policy and programmes of post-literacy and continuing education.

Most of the NGOs, which were actively engaged in policy planning and implementation of TLCs, have gradually distanced from NLM and its programmes over a period of time. In spite of policy rhetoric of decentralisation of decision making process in adult education, policy planning and conceptualisation of programmes has remained the prerogative of the central government. Partnership with NGOs is sought mostly for implementation of various programmes. At the district level, it is left to ZSS to involve NGOs, PRIs and the community in programme implementation. Representatives of NGOs, activists and academicians are inducted in various institutional mechanisms (NLMA, SLMA and ZSS), but their sphere of influence in planning and implementation appears to have declined. The shift towards recruiting professionals at low wages instead of volunteers to run continuing education centres has adversely affected involvement of volunteers, social activists and NGOs in literacy campaigns and other programmes.

However, the nature of partnership between the government and the NGO sector has changed over the years. In the Ninth and Tenth Plans, the government has perceived the NGO sector as a third sector of development and reaffirmed the need to enlist the participation of NGOs in achieving the goal of EFA. The government essentially views NGOs as service providers, particularly for reaching the hard-to-reach populations and as contractors to help build the capacity of the community and PRIs for decentralized planningand managementofeducational interventions. With the introduction of the managerial approach to literacy programmes, the focus is on utilising the services of NGOs for specific tasks, for example, mobilisation of the community, monitoring and evaluation, etc.

During the TLC phase, the government involved BGVS and the other NGOs in various decision making bodies (NLMA, SLMA, ZSS, etc.). Subsequently, the NGOs that were key partners in designing and implementing TLCs, had distanced from the government. With diminishinginvolvementof NGOs/CBOs, volunteers and social activists who were genuinely interested in promoting literacy as people’s movement, literacy programmes are being planned and implemented as routine target-oriented programmes. While continuing NGO involvement in existing programmes, the government envisages assigning the NGOs a larger role in implementation of literacy, post-literacy and continuing education projects. In other words, the government now looks forward to participation of NGOs as implementers of literacy and continuing education programmes and not as mobilisers of the communities around literacy for empowerment.

1.3.4 LearnersAlthough the CEP appeared to have succeeded in reaching the targeted group of beneficiaries, mostly women (71%) from the socio-economically disadvantaged sections (SC, ST and OBC), given low attendance among learners in all the five states, post- literacy teaching and learning appears to be imparted only on a small scale. Hardly any support was provided by JSS for vocational training and skills development. Except in Kerala and West Bengal, preraks were not even fully aware of all the programmes of the CEP. Of the four programmes of CEP, only Equivalency Programme (EP) was operational and was only fully implemented in Kerala. The Quality of Life Improvement Programme (QLIP) was implemented to some extent in Kerala and West Bengal, primarily due to the initiatives of preraks. Thus, implementation of CEP appears to be far from satisfactory.

Given the large gap in the policy and implementation, the impact of CEP on learners has been very limited. The CMS evaluation study shows increase in awareness level of learners and acquisition of some cognitive skills. Despite low and irregular attendance in CE classes, learners reported the impact of CEP in terms awareness on legal age at marriage, importance of child immunisation etc, increase in self- esteem, and improved interactions with government offices. However, there was hardly any impact on improving economic status of the beneficiaries as in none of the states, except in Kerala, beneficiaries acquired vocational skills. This was due to lack of initiative among preraks to arrange training for them, inadequate resources at CECs and NCECs, and lack of convergence of resources. Kerala was an exception because CECs made concerted efforts to help the learners economically.

1.3.5 The PreraksThe CMS evaluation study revealed that most of the preraks of the CECs and NCECs had earlier worked as volunteer instructors in TLCs. In none of the states, except in Kerala, preraks devoted full time at the centres. In general, they worked only for three to four hours a day. On the other hand, there were very few nodal preraks. All the preraks had received training, but there was considerable variation in awareness among preraks about key programmes and activities of the CEP across the states.

Irrespective of their commitment to work at CECs and NCECs, preraks across the states faced similar constraints, such as lack of resources, irregular payment of honoraria, and lack of interest among learners. They were unable to coordinate the activities of CECs due to lack of resources to visit the CECs. Even the sanctioned number of preraks was not available to nodal preraks in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Effectiveness of the CEP will remain limited unless efforts are made to address these constraints.

1.3.6 FunctionariesIn the initial phase of TLCs, considerable efforts were made to organise training programmes for the functionaries at various levels. Over the years, however, training programmes for the functionaries at different levels have become scarce.

On the basis of a review of several evaluation studies on training, it was found that training of voluntary instructors had become a low priority because of diminishing resources in terms of training content, materials, duration, funds and technical inputs to TLCs. Training curriculum generally gives more weightage to the literacy primers and primer-based training, and very little emphasis on adult psychology, andragogy and learning styles. The focus of training in CEP is primarily on imparting knowledge and skills to the preraks for setting up and managing CECs and organising CEP courses and not on adult learning. Thus, training appears to be a neglected area of the programmes. Given top-down approach to training, hardly any attention was paid to preparing the grassroots functionaries as adult educators for meeting their professional commitments and the challenges.

1.3.7 Monitoring and EvaluationMonitoring is one of the weak areas of the programme. In general, standardised guidelines for monitoring are developed by the NLM and circulated to the districts. The Management Information System (MIS) is set up in a hierarchical way to routinely gather information and is hardly used to modify or improve the quality of programme implementation. Community participation in monitoring of the CEP through Village Education Committee, Committee of Neo-literates, Users Committee, etc. is a welcome step. However, inadequate attention is paid to building the capability of the community to play and developing effective structures at the community level this role. Intended to be a mass programme, the National Adult Education Programme (NAEP), however, remained a traditional centre-based programme, which was also honorarium based, hierarchical and government-funded and government controlled.
The chapter explains the concept of adult education in detail. It shares a glimpse of adult education as a global perspective and a detailed note on adult education in India. The chapter explains the journey of literacy efforts in India since independence through various education programmes. Detailed explanations of various stake holders like beneficiaries and functionaries such as NGOs, PRI members, Preraks and voluntary teachers have been captured in the chapter. The chapter establishes the base of the research work by highlighting problems and difficulties in eradicating illiteracy. The next chapter will include study of various literatures relevant to the subject matter of the thesis. The chapter will also identify the drawbacks of existing education programmes and specify the need for new effective adult education model.
CHAPTER II
Review of the Literature, Research Gaps, Draw Backs in Existing Models and Need for New Model2.1 Review of LiteratureReview of literature is one of a very important step of any research work. The study of previous literature related to the research topic, directly or indirectly, provides the researcher with food-for-thought for various aspects of thesis writing. Review of literature on the related topic allows the researcher to understand
The approach of previous researchers’ on the topic;
The methods, tools and techniques deployed by previous researchers;
Interpreting the results and findings of previous literature;
Identification of research gaps of previous research works.

Understanding developed through review of previous literature related to the topic, allows the researcher to establish the framework of the research undertaken by him / her. The researcher is able to define the purpose of his / her research work through the research gap created by previous researches. It further enables the researcher to adopt tools and techniques aptly suitable to conduct the research work.
This chapter provides an overview of literature predominantly in the field of adult education programs. Previous literature in the field of primary and secondary education also studied to understand the root cause of illiterate adults in the country. The researcher has taken complete care to study various literatures in order to have a comprehensive study on the topic of adult education. The chapter includes literature reviewed on topics like Adult education, problems of illiteracy in India, Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), Rural Functional Literacy Project (RFLP), Vocational Education, Continuing Education Program (CEP), National Literacy Mission (NLM), functional literacy and many more.
Classification of all literature reviewed for the current study done as below:
2.1.1 Theses from Universities in India
2.1.2 Reports of Government departments and independent bodies
Literature review as per above classification are as below:
2.1.1 Theses from Universities in IndiaTeresa K. Kalathiveetal (1954)
Title: “An Analysis of the problem of illiteracy in India”
Objectives: Highlighting the problem of illiteracy in Indian and identifying various causes for prevailing condition of illiteracy in India.

Research Methodology: The thesis based on historical research design has data collected from numerous books and reports.

Findings: Causes of the problem of low illiteracy in India lies within social, economical and linguistic problems are the causes of current situation of illiteracy in India.

Comments: The thesis lacks in field study. The current condition of illiteracy in India should have reference to 1954, rather all data mentioned up-to 1945. Understandably, due to lack of digital means, information flow suffered a huge time lag, which seems evident in the thesis.

M. Z. Khan (1956)
Title: “The problem of social adult education in the four districts of Belgaun, Bijapur, Dharwar and Karwar”
Objectives: To access the problems faced at Belgaun, Bijapur, Dharwar and Karwar regarding adult education.

Research Methodology: The researcher chose descriptive research design.

Findings: The thesis reveals the quality of teaching facility including teachers, is not as per desired standards.

Comments: The thesis primarily focuses on teaching environment, but does not reflect any insight on the illiterate’s social and economic conditions that affect their willingness to attend classes. The thesis also misses a very vital aspect of illiteracy, which is large number of illiterate women.

M. G. Mali (1976)
Title: “Factors affecting retention of literacy among neo-literates (A study in adult education)”
Objectives: The thesis had three objectives, mentioned as below;
To determine the extent of retention of literacy among neo-literates educated prior to 1961.

To determine the relationship between retention of literacy any five classroom factors namely, motivation, reading material, teaching methods, duration of the class, and post literacy practice.

To study the impact of environmental factors namely age, occupation and area of location.

Research Methodology: The thesis uses exploratory research design with a sample size of 310 spread across 20 villages in Maharashtra.

Findings: Retention of literacy and five classroom factors appear significantly correlated and no correlation found between retention of literacy and five environmental factors.

Comments: The thesis is limited to the scantly identified factors influencing retention of literacy.
Kuldip Kaur (1982)
Title: “Disparity in men and women literacy figures in the Punjab as related to attitude of the people: A study in attitude change”
Objectives: The main objective of the thesis is to determine the causes of disparity between women literacy rate and men literacy rate with particular reference to the attitude of the people towards women literacy.

Research Methodology: The research work based on historical and descriptive research design contains a sample size of 1200 people bifurcated as 500 rural, 500 urban and 200 educational experts from 12 districts of Punjab.

Findings: Identified five causes namely attitude, social, political, traditional and economic influence the disparity between literacy rate of men and women. Each of these causes affects differently on rural and urban literacy rates of men and women.

Comments: Motivation, teaching methods, quality of teachers, teaching materials has found no place in the research work. The other four causes overshadowed the highlight of the objective, which was study of change in attitude.
Laishram Leiren Singh (1985)
Title: “Impact of non-formal education on the people of Manipur valley”
Objectives: The objective of the thesis was to study the impact of non-formal education on the people of Manipur valley.

Research Methodology: Although, the author fails to define the research methodology, it seems a historical research design conducted through various published journals, articles and reports.
Findings: Inadequate facilities and lack basic requirements have limited the impact of non-formal education in the region.

Comments: The thesis is a mere representation of information about non-formal education in the valley of Manipur published in various reports. Lack of field study incapacitates the thesis and limits its applicability.
Krishna Verma (1986)
Title: “A study of the factors affecting literacy programmes in tribal areas of Himachal Pradesh”
Objectives: The objective of the thesis was to identify factors influencing elementary education and adult education for tribal areas; and to identify factors affecting elementary education and adult education for tribal areas.

Research Methodology: the thesis based on descriptive research design with sample size bifurcated as per objectives, such as for elementary education 29 schools, 100 teachers, 150 parents, and for adult education, 50 adult education centers, and instructors.
Findings: Factors identified for elementary education are location of school, availability of material free of cost, quality of teachers, school environment, and lack of execution of government schemes. Factors identified for adult education are location of centers, quality of instructors, information about technical aspects of agriculture and other activities, occupation and climate.
Comments: The thesis limits the scope of tribal area to Kinnaur and to only one tribe namely Kinner. It gives a very small view of the subject matter studied. Further, the researches focus on the providers of education and do not posses any inference of the people belonging to the tribal area.

Rama Chugani (1987)
Title: “A study of rural functional literacy project in North Arcot district of Tamil Nadu”
Objectives: Objective of the thesis defined as, to access awareness, functionality, learning outcome, problems and factors affecting Rural Functional Literacy Project (RFLP).

Research Methodology: The theses adopted descriptive research design with sample size of 270 adult learners, 270 third standard schoolchildren, 50 animators, 10 supervisors of RFLP, and 50 village leaders in North Arcot district of Tamil Nadu.

Findings: Reading and writing skills of third standard students was higher than the participants of RFLP. Factors identified for the study such as age, occupation, family, marital status and income correlated with literacy skills of the participants.

Comments: The research work lacks exhaustive list of factors to conclude an effective outcome of the study. Factors like motivation, socio-economic culture, teaching facilities, applicability of teachings, and many other did not find any place in the research work.

Prem Lal Gupta (1987)
Title: “Evaluation of Adult Education Literacy centres in relation to their programme objectives in the State of Himachal Pradesh”
Objectives: The objective of the thesis mentioned as to evaluate district wise variation in efficacy of adult education programme in the state of Himachal Pradesh with respect to literacy, functionality and social awareness.

Research Methodology: A descriptive research design selected to achieve the objective through selected six districts of the state of Himachal Pradesh. Total 25 adult centers covered out of 900 centers operating in selected six districts. Respondents included 300 adult learners, 100 village elites, 60 drop-outs, 18 supervisors, 90 instructors and 6 project officers.

Findings: Findings of the research work revealed that there existed plenty of inadequacy regarding infrastructure, teaching material, teaching aids, training for teachers and poor administration for adult education in the six districts of the state. The thesis also reflects data for number of dropouts with reasons of dropout.
Comments: The thesis covers only a part of adult education administered by the government, but ignores the contribution of Self Help Groups (SHGs) and Non-Government Organisations (NGOs). Thus, the research work did not provide a comprehensive study of the subject matter.
Kavita Malhotra (1990)
Title: “The learning needs for adult education among rural and tribal youth in Bihar: A proposed programme of response”
Objectives: The research work conducted with the objective to access the learning needs of rural and tribal youth of Bihar, at three levels of literacy namely neo-literates, on going, and un-enrolled.

Research Methodology: A descriptive research design selected to achieve the objective through selected two districts of the state of Bihar. Total 336 adult learners comprising of 192 learners from rural and 144 from tribal area, bifurcated among three categories for both rural and tribal areas along with 56 instructors, 16 supervisors, eight project officers and four district adult education officers interviewed for data collection.

Findings: Language, the medium of teaching, stood-out as the major differentiator between the preferences of rural and tribal youth from an adult education center. Purpose of learning and desire of learning content differs among rural, tribal, sex, age, occupation and other factors.

Comments: The thesis missed to cover the various factors that affect adult education. Limited sample size did not reflect an overall study of the objective.

Pragya Aggarwal (1991)
Title: “A comparative study of vocationalisation of education in Haryana and Delhi with special reference to New Education Policy-1986”
Objectives: The objective of research work established as, to investigate the patterns of vocational studies at senior secondary level in Haryana and Delhi, and to study the difference of vocational studies in Haryana and Delhi.

Research Methodology: The thesis based on descriptive research design framework selected the sample size of 400 students, 200 each from Haryana and Delhi, and 200 teachers, 100 each from Haryana and Delhi.

Findings: The thesis reveals significant difference of opinion among the students of Haryana and Delhi on many factors. It also elaborated the New Education Policy of 1986, implemented in Haryana and Delhi in similar lines to increase commonality of the vocational studies between to two.

Comments: Inadequate sample size results week arguments for the findings of research work to be acceptable. The thesis inadvertently skips many aspects of vocational studies such as applicability, course structure, inadequate facilities, lack of training to teachers, regularly updating course contents to adapt the changing environment and others.

B. Naredra Kumar (1993)
Title: “A study of the impact of adult education programme on the participants of Mysore city”
Objectives: The objective of research work defined as, to ascertain the level of achievement in literacy, awareness, functionality and attitudinal change towards adult education.

Research Methodology: The researcher adopted descriptive research design and selected the sample size of 400 learners and 100 non-learners.

Findings: The research brought significant difference between the learners and non-learners regarding reading, writing and learning skills. Awareness level and positive attitude towards adult education are the two relevant factors found favorable with learners and not so favorable with non-learners.

Comments: The research work provided some factors affecting adult education, but did not convey the impact of the factors on adult education. The researcher also missed on exploring possibilities and new ideas to mitigate the adverse affecting factors.

Ruchika Malhotra (1993)
Title: “A study of learning outcomes among adult learners in the union territory of Chandigarh as related to goal orientation, persistence and learning styles”
Objectives: The objective of the thesis was to access the goals, persistency and learning styles of learners and to evaluate learning outcome with regard to goals, persistency and learning styles.

Research Methodology: Framework of descriptive research design with a sample size of 200 learners helped in building the research work.

Findings: Each learner in the sample exhibited presence of goal for taking adult education; persistency level was high and varied learning styles adopted by learners. Regarding outcome of adult education, some learners’ goals achieved and others met goals partially. Persistency and learning styles revealed direct relationship with the learning outcome of the learners.
Comments: A more detailed study of identified 49 variables with a much bigger sample size would have given larger and more accurate perspective of the research.

K. Govindappa (1994)
Title: “Adult education in Anantpur district, a study on the impact of National Literacy Mission”
Objectives: The objective of the research work subjected to measure the impact of adult education regarding literacy, awareness and functionality levels of the learners with reference to demographic, social and economic ventures.

Research Methodology: Descriptive research design with a sample size of 300 learners selected for the research work.

Findings: The impact of adult education with reference to literacy, awareness and functionality appeared negligible. The economic, social and demographic factors played pivotal role in influencing the outcome of the learning centers.
Comments: The research work limited itself with just three factors namely economic, social and demographic, which provides a deficient study of the subject matter. A comprehensive research work may include several other factors like learning infrastructure, learning aids, attitudinal changes, and many more.

Roma Nautiyal Saklani (1994)
Title: “An enquiry into the attitude of the people towards women’s education in Chamoli, Garhwal”
Objectives: The research work set around the objective to ascertain attitude of people towards women’s education in relation to attitude towards women, traditionalism and educational facilities.

Research Methodology: The research work based upon descriptive research design with a sample size of 991 people of Chamoli in Garhwal.

Findings: The variables chosen as attitude towards women, traditionalism and educational facilities did influence the attitude of people towards women’s education. Rural men had a favorable view towards women’s education than rural women.
Comments: The thesis studied only the limited factors responsible for the attitude of people towards women’s education. Level of women’s education, reasons for the existing level of women’s education, although pivotal, do not find place in the research work.

Bir Singh Negi (1995)
Title: “Literacy campaign in Himachal Pradesh: An evaluative study”
Objectives: The research work defined objective as to access functionality and performance of Total Literacy Campaign.

Research Methodology: Descriptive research design based on six districts of Himachal Pradesh having sample size of 414 people comprising of 132 learners / neo-literates, 115 drop-outs, 84 field functionaries, 57 community leaders and 26 administrators selected to execute the research work.

Findings: Inadequate facilities and lack of execution identified as the cause of underperformance of the TLC. Low pass percentage of learners attributed to lack of training for the teachers, insufficient teaching aids and facilities.
Comments: Functionality of Total Literacy Campaign covered appropriately in the research work, but performance or the outcome of the TLC received lesser interest of the research work.
Nasrin (1996)
Title: “Development of post literacy material of environmental education for neo-literates through programmed text”
Objectives: The thesis established the objective as, to develop and to access the effectiveness of developed post-literacy material for neo-literates in the area of food and water.

Research Methodology: The research work built on framework of descriptive research design with sample size of 100 learners from adult education centers located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh.

Findings: The programmed text of the two research areas, namely food and water, revealed more effective than simple text.
Comments: Sources and quality of food and water not covered in the entire thesis. Sample size reflects a weaker study of the variables and requires a larger sample size for a conclusive and a comprehensive study.
Dulumoni Goswami (1997)
Title: “Perspective of Total Literacy Campaign: A case study of Jorhat district”
Objectives: Objectives narrated as to access the performance of TLC and to evaluate the perception of learners regarding the outcome of the program.

Research Methodology: Descriptive research design with sample size of 400 learners 100 volunteer teachers, and 100 local leading people of 33 gram-panchayats.
Findings: The research work revealed under-performance of TLC in Jorhat district. Inadequate training for teachers, lack of aids, un-availability of materials, low enthusiasm and lack of commitment of volunteers identified some of the factors responsible for under-performance of TLC.
Comments: Conducting literacy test of the learners regarding reading and writing could have proved more helpful for the research work.
S. Karuppaiyan (1998)
Title: “A study on retention of literacy among the neo-literate of total literacy campaign in Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu”
Objectives: The research work based on the objective to study sociological variables, economic variables and kalajatha variables of the respondents on retention of literacy.

Research Methodology: The research work based on ex post facto research design with a sample size of 292 neo-literates studied to access retention of literacy among neo-literate.
Findings: The research work revealed low retention of literacy among neo-literate, which is more in male than female. Factors like age, property, assets, educational expenditure, reading posters, reading notices, reading boards, street play, meetings, beliefs on literacy, motivation significantly influence retention of literacy among neo-literate.
Comments: The thesis is a good piece of work to access retention of literacy among neo-literate with reference to sociological and economical variables. Factors like motivation and attitude affect the retention of literacy but neither could find a place in the research work.

Gireesan K. (1998)
Title: “Voluntary efforts in post literacy and continuing education: A case study of Kerala Saksharatha Samithi”
Objectives: The objective of the research work defined as to study the role of voluntary organizations during post literacy and continuing education program in the state of Kerala.

Research Methodology: The research work based upon descriptive research design. Sample size chosen from four districts of Kerala namely Kasaragod, Palakkad, Ernakulam and Thiruvananthapuram. Gram panchayat, municipal council and Municipal Corporation totaling to 15 from each district selected. The total count of respondents from four districts was 497 bifurcated as 305 neo-literate, 60 Panchayat Coordinators, 60 Jan Vidya Kendra Convenors, 12 District Coordinators, 20 experts and 40 members of society.

Findings: The research work shows excessive activity of various functionaries regarding post literacy supplementary reading material. The supplementary reading material graded in three categories as A, B and C with difference in linguistic, fonts size, and number of words.
Comments: The research work provides a good insight at the activities of voluntary organizations in the field of post literacy and continuing education.

M. C. Obulesu (1999)
Title: “An enquiry into the problem of dropouts in Total Literacy Campaign of Kurnool district”
Objectives: Major objective of the research work stated as to identify problems of total literacy campaign in Kurnool district as expressed by dropouts.

Research Methodology: Descriptive research design is the framework for the thesis, with a sample size of 400 dropouts randomly selected from 100 centers.

Findings: Eighty problems identified and marked categorized under 22 groups. Each problem rated by the respondent as 1/2/3. As per the rating, problems very significant to dropouts are 21, 54 significant problems and 5 less significant problems.

Comments: The research work lacks in identifying the reasons for dropouts. Creating groups as per reasons of dropout and then segregating the problems as per rating scale could have resulted in more accurate findings and conclusions. Nevertheless, the research work does give lot of inputs regarding the problems of dropouts.

Kishori Dash (2002)
Title: “A study of the impact of educational programme on educational development of the slum women of Rourkela”
Objectives: The major objective of the thesis rests on the study of the impact of educational programs on development of slum women in Rourkela. Further to this main objective, the research work studied the activities of Rourkela Saksharta Samiti, to identify problems faced by various functionaries, and to find out the causes of underdevelopment of slum women.

Research Methodology: The research work based upon descriptive research design. Sample size chosen from 16 slum areas in Rourkela are 103 women.

Findings: Rourkela Saksharta Samiti conducted many activities and launched many programs for development of slum women like Saheli, Banita, and Sukannya. Problems identified for the development of slum women as timing of classes not suitable and irregular volunteers. The outcome of literacy programs from slum women resulted in a satisfactory performance on reading and writing skills.
Comments: The thesis is a good comprehensive piece of work on the subject of identifying impact of education programs on slum women in Rourkela.

Rajesh Kumar (2004)
Title: “Academic Support services m Literacy movement in Himachal Pradesh”
Objectives: Objective of the thesis defined as to study the organization, structure and functioning of Sate Directorate of Adult Education, State Resource Center, Center for Adult and Continuing education, district resource units and Zila saksharta samities.

Research Methodology: The research work based of descriptive research design with sample size of 15 people comprising of three directors from State Directorate of Adult Education, State Resource Center and Center for Adult, Continuing Education and Extension, one each. ‘District Institute of Education and Training’ and Zilla Saksharta Samities was included through sample size of six in-charges each.

Findings: The thesis highlights organization structure, functioning, activities of the five establishments in the field of education in Himachal Pradesh. Apart from District Institute of Engineering and Training, all the four are functioning efficiently and performing their respective responsibilities. DIET execution and contribution to education in the state observed negligible.

Comments: The thesis provides an insight into the functioning of important organizations involved in education in the state. Sample size taken from these organizations does not reveal the correct picture of the performance of these organizations. Sample should also include other stakeholders that would give a unbiased view on the functioning of these organizations.

Asha Ramaconda Patil (2004)
Title: “An evaluative study of some specific programmes under continuing education scheme of national literacy mission”
Objectives: Objective of the thesis defined as below:
To study opinions of Assistant Project Officers / Supervisors, Preraks and participants;
To study qualities of Awareness Programmes (AWPs), Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIPs), Nodal Continuing Education Centers (NCECs) and Continuing Education Centers (CECs) as perceived by participants and preraks;
To conduct SWOT analysis on AWPs and QLIPs
Research Methodology: Research design selected as Descriptive research design. Sample size constituted 240 participants, 16 preraks from CECs, 8 preraks from NCECs and 8 APOs / Supervisors randomly selected from Satara and Ahmednagar districts of Maharashtra.

Findings: Timely appointment of preraks affected the performance of CECs and NCECs. Major problems faced by preraks identified as poor attendance of participants, conflict of program timings and participant work timings, lack of study materials and literacy kits, lack of sports and entertainment activities, inadequate power supply, irregular funds availability for conducting various education development activities. Participant’s irregular attendance at the centers attributed to conflict in timing of the class and their work, excessive work at their job, too tired to attend a serious class, and lack of study material. Women participants faced additional difficulties in attending the classes such as no streetlights in the approach road, objection from husband and father to attend classes after sunset.
Comments: The researcher presented a comprehensive study on the subject of the thesis with detailed analysis of the results obtained from the data. The thesis provides good quantum of information on the four basic functionalities of continuing education programmes of national literacy mission. SWOT analysis for continuing education presented in detail.

Kusumita Pal (2005)
Title: “A study of literacy achievement in literacy centers of West Bengal”
Objectives: Objective of the thesis defined as to study the literacy achievement of learners, teaching-learning methods, teaching aids, need and interest of learners for literacy development, socio-economic background of learners and to study the instructor’s background and knowledge on the subject.
Research Methodology: The thesis based upon descriptive research design with sample size 276 learners from two districts of West Bengal namely South 24-Pargans and Birbhum and one Municipal corporation. The 276 respondents constituted 167 rural and 109 urban learners.

Findings: Overall literacy achievement of the learners resulted in poor state due to factors such as inadequate and irregular supply of reading and writing material, poor involvement of instructors, and educational level of parents of learners.
Comments: The research work provides the perspective of learners only. Perspective of functionaries is essential while accessing the performance of efforts of supporting organizations.

A. Narayanan (2005)
Title: “Evaluation of the literacy campaign 1997-2003 in Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu”
Objectives: Objective of the thesis designed to access qualitatively the mass literacy campaign in Thiruvallur, to evaluate the role of various functionaries of the literacy campaign, and to access learner’s achievements in education from literacy campaign.
Research Methodology: Descriptive research design chosen as the framework to conduct the research work. Sample size of 300 neo-literate, 225 voluntary teachers and 125 field workers selected to study the subject matter.

Findings: Neo-literates, voluntary teachers and field workers expressed their satisfaction of the facilities at the learning centers along with availability of teaching aids and reading and study materials. Neo-literate constituted 90 percent female, which is an astounding sign for education development of Thiruvallur district.
Comments: The thesis lacks an in-depth study of the subject matter. Assessment of reasons for dropouts, non-learners could have helped the researcher to evaluate the literacy campaign in the district more comprehensively.

Manjeet Paintal (2006)
Title: “Adult education in India, Indonesia, Thailand and China – A comparative study”
Objectives: The objectives of the thesis are as below:
To study the concept, definition, purpose, policy and practice of adult education in the selected countries;
To analyse the role of primary education and adult education for achieving adult literacy in selected countries;
To compare, identify similarities and dissimilarities of adult education in selected countries;
To analyse successful outcome and problems of adult education in the selected countries;
Research Methodology: The thesis based upon comparative, interpretive analysis of information regarding adult education in the selected four countries available through multiple sources like, UNESCO, respective country’s education department publications, reports, articles, case studies and other relevant sources.

Findings: Findings of the thesis enumerated below:
Socio-cultural environment of the four countries are similar, but each country at a different stage of socio-cultural level.

Although basic fundamental of adult education remained same across the four countries, but differed on the perspective of prevailing political system in the country and socio-cultural development of the country.

From the study of all four country’s adult education system and problems, it inferred that the requirement of adult education system arises from failure of primary education for all.
All four countries found on similar grounds for the concept of adult education being functional and employment oriented.

All the four countries suffer high illiteracy in rural areas than in urban areas.

The major difference among the four countries stand on grounds of literacy achievement; Thailand and Indonesia achieved 100 percent literacy in 2002; China achieved nearly 100 percent literacy in adult education; on the other had India is far behind the 100 percent mark, in-fact 33 percent of illiterate population are the school dropouts only.

In all the four countries, women were lesser illiterate than men. Gender gap in China stood at eight percent, Thailand at three percent, Indonesia at nine percent and India at huge 21 percent.
Best practices of China, Thailand and Indonesia:
High focus on primary education;
Highly motivated teachers and other functionaries for adult education programs;
Class schedule and venue organized in a flexible manner to suit according to the learners.

In China, teachers were full-time or part-time committed members of political party of ruling government. Similarly, in Thailand and Indonesia teachers were not voluntary participants to the education programs.
Comments: A comprehensive comparative evaluation presented in the thesis, without any biasness or prejudice. There is complete clarity and detailing of similarities and differences among the four countries on adult education.
Kabita Barman (2007)
Title: “Literacy Campaign of Gyan Vigyan Samiti, Assam (GVSA): A case study of its effects on the individual learner and the community”
Objectives: The major objective of the thesis is to access the literacy achievement of neo-literate, and to evaluate the impact of GVSA’s program on literacy and development of the region.
Research Methodology: The research work based upon descriptive research design having sample size of 300 people comprising of 150 neo-literates and 150 illiterate. The sample belongs to three districts namely Darrang, Nagaon and Kamrup, 100 respondents each.
Findings: Literacy skills of neo-literate found satisfactory, with 96 percent, 92.7 percent and 87.3 percent achieving more than 50 percent in score in reading, arithmetic and writing respectively. GVSA, apart from literacy programs also executed other development programs such as health awareness, sanitation, women empowerment and earnings and savings.
Comments: GVSA’s role and impact in development does not reflect clearly through this research work. More data collection regarding GVSA’s role and impact along with logical and statistical methods could have added more value to the research work.

Piyali Ghosh (2011)
Title: “The study of literacy and economic development of North Bengal”
Objectives: The objective of the research work defined as to ascertain the relationship between educational development and economic development.
Research Methodology: Descriptive research design with sample of respondents taken from 10 percent of villages of selected seven CD Blocks.
Findings: There is positive relationship between literacy and economic development.
Comments: The thesis is a good work of usage of statistical technique in defining the relationship between the two factors. Statistical findings emphasized more than actual field studies and the impact on population of literacy and economic development.

N.K.P. Ashok Raj (2012)
Title: “A study on the effectiveness of training materials and tools developed for literacy programmes”
Objectives: The objective of the research work defined as to ascertain the impact of training material among the beneficiaries while imparting training on literacy, capacity building, awareness creation, skill development training and Self Help Group.
Research Methodology: The research work based upon descriptive research design. The research conducted on neo-literate and functionaries of in 70 slums in 10 different zones of Chennai municipal corporations.
Findings: Training helped the literacy programs to function effectively. Trainings helped functionaries like preraks in conducting the programs efficiently.
Comments: The thesis limited to a small population size shows a very week data collection, analysis and interpretation to reach a decisive conclusion.

Kanika Handa (2012)
Title: “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in Himachal Pradesh: An evaluative study”
Objectives: The objective of the thesis defined as to study complete operations of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan with regard to role played by various departments and functionaries.
Research Methodology: The research work based upon descriptive research design with sample size of 400 teachers, 80 schools, 35 BRCCs, and 6 NGOs.
Findings: The thesis revealed lack of resources in form of manpower, unfavorable attitude of teachers and other functionaries, lack of skills and interest of teachers and other functionaries.
Comments: The thesis is a good piece of research work on Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in Himachal Pradesh. Although there is still scope of further evaluation of the program at various levels and impact of the program completely missed out in the thesis.

Pallvi Pandit (2013)
Title: “Mass literacy campaign and the targeted new delivery system under Sakshar Bharat Mission-2012 in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh”
Objectives: The objective of the research work defined as to evaluate performance of existing delivery system and the proposed new delivery system as per Sakshar Bharat Mission 2012.
Research Methodology: Descriptive research design with the sample population of key officials of various departments and organizations involved in mass literacy campaign and community leaders chosen as the framework of the research work.
Findings: Jan Sabha Abhiyan, Each One Teach One, Environment building, Kala Jatha-2011 and Public Disclosure are few of the innovative programs utilized by functionaries for mass literacy campaign. Lack of coordination, execution lapses, low motivation at ground level functionaries, bad weather conditions and delayed supply of logistics and funds are some of the challenges experienced by the campaign.
Comments: Absence of beneficiary’s views in the research work poses a major drawback of the thesis.
D K Pradhan (2014)
Title: “A study of primitive tribal women dropouts from literacy campaigns in Bolangir district of Orissa”
Objectives: The objective of the thesis established as to study socio-economic, cultural, geographical, language and institutional barriers for female literacy among different primitive tribal groups dropouts from literacy programs.
Research Methodology: The research work based upon descriptive research design with a sample size of 800 primitive tribal women dropouts selected from four tribes.
Findings: Findings of the research work illustrate the reasons for dropouts as unfavorable behavior of volunteer teachers, unsupportive family, conservative and orthodox culture, migration for work, lack of cooperation of the village leaders in learning campaigns, lack of motivation, lack of awareness, difficulty in studying, illiterate family members and discrimination against women literacy.
Comments: The thesis is a good work on primitive tribal women dropouts with clear and elaborate study of the subject matter.
Smita Katiyar (2014)
Title: “A study of the impact of adult literacy programme in Kanpur dehat district of UP”
Objectives: The major objective of the thesis stated as to study the socio-economic, level of knowledge and opinion of learners with regard to adult literacy programme.
Research Methodology: Descriptive research design with a sample size of 210 learners established as the framework of the research work.
Findings: literacy skills of learners found adequate post literacy program. Lack of funds and lack of cooperation of village pradhans affects the working and performance of adult education programmes..
Comments: The thesis lacks an adequate sample size for the study of the subject matter.

Poonam Malakondaiah (2014)
Title: “A study on the approaches followed in implementing literacy programmes in Andhra Pradesh: A case study of West Godavari district”
Objectives: The thesis established its objective as to access the scope, functioning and performance of various literacy programs in Andhra Pradesh.
Research Methodology: The research work based upon descriptive research design with a sample size of 526 functionaries.
Findings: The research work studied NAEP, TLC, AMP and ASP educational programs. Findings for each of the programs are as below:
NAEP positive aspects include direct implementation by the Government; project is a viable administrative unit, clear guidelines, scientifically developed primers, systematic training to all functionaries, and clear demarcation of role of NGOs. Negative aspects of NAEP were; delay in release of funds, sentence method was not suitable and long duration of the course, and no role of the district administration.

TLC positive aspects revealed autonomy in implementation, primers developed locally, village level training and total involvement of district. Negative aspects of TLC were difficulty with IPCL method and no training to functionaries.

AMP positive aspect was administrative structure, integration of training and monitoring. Negative aspects were no functional committees, low educational level of volunteers and limited involvement of districts.

ASP positive aspect was flexible state designed program, village level training and alphabetic method. Negative aspect was no uniform education levels of volunteers.

Comments: The thesis is an elaborate work on comparison of the four literacy education programs. It sets up the right platform for exploring the best model for literacy education program.

Chanam Sonia Devi (2014)
Title: “Total Literacy Campaign in Bishnupur district of Manipur”
Objectives: The objective of the thesis defined as to ascertain enrollment, literacy and dropout rates of TLC as per the demographic and socio-economic factors of the learners.
Research Methodology: The thesis based upon descriptive research design with a sample size of 1800 learners from 120 centers of six constituencies.
Findings: Below are few of the major findings of the research work:
Literacy rate of learners from joint family was higher.

A dropout from nuclear families recorded higher than of joint families.

Volunteers with higher educational qualifications produced more number of dropouts and volunteers with lower education qualifications produced more literacy rates.

Major factors for dropout were age of the learners and occupational commitments.
Comments: The thesis is a good piece of work on evaluation of TLC in Manipur. It gives the right framework for evaluation and exploring improved literacy program.

Manju Jiju Mathew (2015)
Title: “Adult learning approaches in the teaching-learning process: The case of job training course for Anganwadi workers”
Objectives: The thesis defined objectives as to access the teaching-learning process of Angan Wadi Workers (AWW), to evaluate the teaching methods of adult women learners and to suggest ways to improve adult learning process.
Research Methodology: The thesis based upon case study approach with 12 learners from an urban Angan Wadi Training Center (AWTC).
Findings: The case studies of 12 learners revealed the transformation of the learners through the training programs. Each participant had its unique way of learning and understanding of the teachings based on her demographic, socio-economic, past education and cultural patterns.
Comments: The thesis revealed insight of the teaching learning patterns of the 12 case studies in detail. It also provides a good framework to explore improvement in adult literacy programs.

Bala Vivekanandhan A. (2016)
Title: “A study on the effectiveness of E-Learning in the functional literacy programme among the illiterates”
Objectives: The objective of the thesis defined as to evaluate the existing e-learning module of functional literacy and its effectiveness.
Research Methodology: Descriptive research design with a sample size of 690 learners and 70 functionaries from 35 centers of six districts selected for the research work.
Findings: The research work revealed that the e-learning module and the course content had a positive impact on the learners. Few improvement areas suggested were more usage of background music and animated cartoon characters that make learning enjoyable, more pictures and graphic representation, usage of words as per learner’s understanding and inclusion of practical life oriented subject matter in the e-learning module.
Comments: The thesis provides an insight to the e-learning module of literacy programs. It gives a launch pad for further research on the topic with applicability and feasibility.

P Mageswari (2016)
Title: “Literacy empowerment of rural women: A field experiment”
Objectives: The thesis studies literacy of rural women and its impact on women empowerment.
Research Methodology: Descriptive research design with sample size of 180 women from five villages chosen as sample for the research work.
Findings: Pace and literacy rate of learners was affected by age, religion, community and family size. Education on nutrition, health and environment attracted more learners than conventional reading, writing and arithmetic.
Comments: The thesis provides a surface level study of the subject matter, a larger sample size and more number of variables could reveal better results in the research work.

2.1.2 Reports of Government departments and independent bodies
UNESCO presented Education for All Global Monitoring Report in 2015, wherein global trends were analysed in terms of the ten key aspects of the suggested framework for successful literacy campaigns and programmes. Four case studies on major literacy campaigns in Brazil, India, South Africa and Indonesia were used to expand on these global trends in greater depth, particularly with regard to their specific features, challenges, success factors and results. The report appreciated the campaigns for creating fresh momentum to mobilize for literacy, most large-scale campaigns have set overly ambitious targets and underestimated the complexity of the task. The continuity of learning processes for newly literates and the articulation of short-duration campaigns with national learning systems are major concerns. Future strategy should promote literacy as part of lifelong learning after 2015.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics published a factsheet in 2017, which shows remarkable improvement among youth in terms of reading and writing skills and a steady reduction in gender gaps. 50 years ago, almost one quarter of youth lacked basic literacy skills compared to less than 10% in 2016. It acknowledged the need for renewed efforts and design of the efforts to achieve the targets.
At the World Education Forum in Dakar (2000), India endorsed the Dakar Framework for Action and committed goals related to adult literacy: “ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmes, and achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults”.

National Policy on Education (1986) provided considerable impetus to promote basic education for school-age children, youth and adults. In the 1990s, India endorsed the World Declaration of Education for All (EFA) adopted by the World Conference of Education at Jomtien (1990), and accepted the declarations of the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA V) with regard to adult literacy and adult learning. India has made significant strides to impart elementary education and adult literacy education in the 1990s (see Govinda, 2002.). However, the major thrust of the basic education reform in India remained on elementary education, and not on adult education and lifelong learning and as such the vast majority of youth and adults, has either remained illiterate or with low level of formal education. The NPE (1986) has been a major landmark in the history of adult education as it widened the scope of adult education, and brought adult literacy to the forefront of educational planning. It articulated for the first time the national commitment to addressing the problem of eradicating adult illiteracy in a time-bound manner with planned, concerted and coordinated efforts. The policy provided impetus to development of a mass approach to eradication of literacy with mass mobilisation and support of divergent sections of society
Mid-Term Review of Sakshar Bharat Program for Uttarakhand state conducted by IIM, Lucknow revealed insightful analysis of the ongoing
Tata Services Maharashtra report on adult education
2.2 Drawbacks in Existing ModelThe extensive and detailed study of the subject has revealed number of shortcomings of the adult education system. These drawbacks may be divided in two categories as below:
A. Infrastructure and Logistics based drawbacks
– Basic civic infrastructural requirements not adequately provided at AEC.

– Teaching tools and learning materials not adequately available at AECs.

– Lack of coordination between functionaries and among SLMA, SRC, Block level and panchayat level
– Delay in information sharing among various functionaries and at different levels.

– Lack of clarity in roles assigned to various officials and functionaries.

– Shortage of staff and delayed appointments of teachers and preraks
– Dearth of financial aid and delay in payment to vendors and functionaries
– Functionaries not satisfied with the remuneration.

– Negligible training to the functionaries
B. Performance Based Drawbacks
– Increase of dropouts at elementary education level.

– Lack of motivation among learners for the learning content and materials
– Lack of usefulness and instructiveness of PLP and CE
– Lack of awareness regarding adult education programs
– Reduced participation of NGOs
2.4 Need for New ModelFrom the study of various researches and reports on adult education, it is found that after all the efforts put in so far have not resulted in desired outcome. There is a need to reengineer the entire adult education process and design in order to attain the expected results. The new model is needed to:
Make literacy a learning continuum;
Provide equitable access and quality;
Institutionalise and decentralise;
Enable good governance;
Assess the learner in a friendly easy manner;
Monitor and evaluate;
Form community structure at grass root level;
Localise the content and teaching methods;
Extensively use technology in teaching, content designing, assessing, monitoring and evaluating;
Furthermore, it is important to make the new model an inclusive programe for all concerned by involving all stakeholders in active and participative way. The research work shall make necessary and earnest efforts in redefining the adult education by strategically shifting functional literacy to Technologically Inclusive Adult Education (TIAE). The new model of adult education should encompass technology, inclusiveness, institutionalization, decentralization, with higher visibility and transparency.
The chapter has studied various literatures pertaining to the topic of the thesis. Literature reviewed in two sections one pertaining to several research work conducted by universities in the field of adult education and second section related to various articles, reports and journal published in the relevant field. The chapter provides the drawbacks of the education programmes based on the review of literatures. The extensive study of numerous reports allows the researcher to establish the need for an effective adult education programme. The next chapter highlights the various aspects and concepts of adult education programmes and their relevance to eradicate literacy. It also provides a detailed study of existing education programmes.
Chapter-3
Proposed Model and Management in Volunteer Mode Program, Equivalency Skill Development, Adult Literacy and Life Long Learning ProgramLiteracy has been a national issue since the country attained independence. A number of significant programmes have been taken up to eradicate illiteracy among adults. Some of the important programmes have included:
(i) Social Education: The main elements were literacy, extension, general education, leadership training and social consciousness. The programme was implemented in the First Five-Year Plan (1951-56).
(ii) Gram Shikshan Mohim: Movement for literacy in the rural areas was started in 1959 in Satara district of Maharashtra, and was later extended to other parts of the state. The programme aimed at imparting basic literacy skills within a period of about four months and by 1963, it spread to all the districts of the state. The programme, however, suffered from a lack of systematic follow-up and consequently, relapse to illiteracy was massive.
(iii) Farmers’ Functional Literacy Project: Started in 1967-68 as an inter-ministerial project for farmers’ training and functional literacy, the project aimed at popularisation of highyielding varieties of seeds through the process of adult education. The programme was confined to 144 districts of the country where nearly 8,640 classes were organised for about 2.6 lakh adults.
(iv) Non-formal Education: In the beginning of the Fifth Plan, a programme of non-formal education for 15- 25 age-group was launched. Although the scope, content and objective of the non-formal project was clearly spelt out, its understanding in the field was very limited and the programmes actually organised indistinguishable from the conventional literacy programmes.
(v) Polyvalent Adult Education Centres: Workers’ Social Education Institutes and Polyvalent Adult Education Centres were reviewed by a group in 1977, which recommended adoption of Polyvalent Adult Education Centres in the adult education programme for workers in urban areas. In pursuance of this decision, Shramik Vidyapeeths were set up in the states.
(vi) Education Commission (1964-66): The appointment of the Education Commission (1964-66) was a significant event in the history of education in India. Among several measures, it recommended that high priority be accorded to ending illiteracy. It urged that adult education be promoted both through “selective” as well as “mass approach” and stressed on the active involvement of teachers and students and the wider use of the media for the literacy programme.”
The Education Commission also stated that in the world of science and technology, the main objective should be to relate it to life, needs and aspirations of the people so as to make it an instrument of socioeconomic and political change.
(vii) Functional Literacy for Adult Women (FLAW): The scheme of Functional Literacy for Adult Women (FLAW) was started in 1975-76 in the experimental ICDS project areas. It was gradually expanded alongwith the expansion of ICDS upto the year 1981-82.
Till then, 300 ICDS projects were approved. Sanctions were also given for FLAW scheme in these project areas. However, the Planning Commission decided to stop the expansion of FLAW scheme in ICDS project areas mainly due to a constraint of resources. The aim of the FLAW scheme was to enable illiterate adult women to acquire functional skills along with literacy, to promote better awareness of health, hygiene, child-care practices and to bring about attitudinal changes. The target age group was 15-45, with greater attention to those in the 15-35 age group.
(viii) National Adult Education Programme (NAEP): The first nation-wide attempt at eradication of illiteracy was made through the National Adult Education Programme launched on October 2, 1978. It was a massive programme which aimed at educating 100 million non- literate adults in the age group of 15-35 years within a time frame of five years. The objectives of the National Adult Education Programme were not merely to impart literacy in the conventional sense, but also to provide learners with functional awareness which were conceived as three integral components of the skills of reading, writing and arithmetic. Functionality implied the ability to utilise and apply the skills acquired with a view to promote efficiency of the neo-literate. The social awareness component aimed at knowing, understanding and taking action on issues which affect the individual community and society.
ix) Rural Functional Literacy Project (RFLP): This was a major centrally sponsored scheme started in 1978 for rural areas. The erstwhile 144 Farmers’ Functional Literacy Projects and 60 Non-formal Education Projects were merged into it. Further, projects were added and the number of projects throughout the country in 1987 were 513, each having upto a maximum number of 300 adult education centres and each centre having 25-30 learners.
(x) State Adult Education Programme (SAEP): The states also similarly took up centre based projects under the state plan funds on the lines of RFLPs.
(xi) Adult Education through Voluntary Agencies: To ensure greater participation of voluntary agencies, the Central Scheme of Assistance to Voluntary Agencies was revived in April 1982. Under this scheme, registered societies were sanctioned Centre-based projects for functional literacy and post-literacy, where they were allowed to run projects in a compact area.

3.1 Life Long Learning ProgramNational Literacy Mission (NLM) has been focusing on three major programmes of adult education: Total Literacy Campaigns (TLC) for imparting basic literacy skills, Post-Literacy Programme (PLP) for applications of literacy skills, and Continuing Education Programme (CEP) for linking literacy with skills upgradation and improvement in the quality of life. In addition, the government has revamped the scheme of Jan Shikshan Sansthans (Institutes of People’s Education) to impart neo- literates vocational skills and trainings, and the scheme of Support to Voluntary Organisations to enhance the role of NGOs in implementation of various programmes of NLM. In addition, the Mahila Samakhya Programme and Accelerated Female Literacy Programme have been emerged into one single programme called Saakshar Bharat Programme (SBP) by the government to educate non-literate women. This section examines salient issues in the programmatic framework of these programmes.
With revamping of the NLM policy in the late 1990s, there has been a significant change in the NLM’s programmatic approach since then. The programmes of TLCs and PLP have been integrated under the scheme of Literacy Campaigns and Operation Restoration since April 2000 for continuity of learning. TLC and PLP are viewed as two operational stages of the learning continuum. It is envisaged that integration of the activities of basic teaching-learning with post-literacy activities would ensure a smooth transition from TLC to PLP. Under this scheme it is feasible to take up TLC and PLP concurrently and draw finances from a single budgetary provision and formulate strategies for restoration of the stagnated campaigns.

TLC is no longer perceived as a people’s movement, linking literacy with development and social concerns through volunteerism, but as target- oriented and time-bound literacy programme run mostly by paid functionaries. Mobilisation strategy of TLC is replaced with the managerial approach to improve programme efficiency. De-linking PLP from CEP has weakened post-literacy as an important stage of learning.

The focus of TLC has remained on imparting basic literacy skills (reading, writing and numeracy) and the achievement of pre-determined levels of literacy and numeracy through IPCL primers. However, assuming that TLCs have succeeded in making the vast population literate, attention has shifted to tackling the problem of residual illiteracy and improving the quality of literacy skills of neo-literates. Consolidation, remediation, continuation and application are identified as key functions of PLP. However, limited attention is paid to material, training and resource support on a sustainable basis to attain them. Realising the significance of sustaining fragile literacy skills of neo-literates, and linking literacy with development after TLCs, the government has strengthened and revamped the Scheme of Continuing Education to provide lifelong learning opportunities to all people beyond basic literacy/post-literacy and functional literacy. The CEP is very similar to the earlier Jan Shiksha Sansthan model. The CEP is planned as a flexible programme to meet learning needs of diverse groups of learners, including neo-literates. The Continuing Education Centre (CEC) is considered as the focal point of all learning opportunities, covering a wide range of activities. CECs are managed and coordinated by preraks and assistant preraks, who are expected to work full time with low honorarium. The basic design of CE programme shows a shift in responsibility for financing of the CEP from the central government to the state government and ZSS. Linkages with other departments and institutions, and high community support and participation in CEC activities is also envisaged for sustainability.
3.2 Major Programmes of NLMKey Programmes Objective Beneficiaries Execution framework
Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) To provide basic literacy skills to non-literates Non-literates (15-35 years) Volunteer based programme executed at the local level by mobilising non-literates at a specific predefined location.

Post-Literacy Programme (PLP) To provide literacy to neo-literates and drop-outs of basic literacy programmes Neo-literates and drop-outs Execution happened on a project basis.

There was no clear framework on execution, management and monitoring the programme.

Continuing Education for Neo-Literates To provide life-long learning opportunities beyond basic literacy and primary education for all. All who have completed primary education or functional literacy Execution of the programme is based on voluntary agencies, universities, Jan Shikshan Sansthans and SRCs with active participation of all functionaries at various levels.

The execution suffered the lack of clear direction and defined and specific agenda.

It lacked continuous creation of learning modules make the education need based
3.3 Saakshar Bharat Programme (SBP)The Saakshar Bharat programme, launched at the allIndia level in 2009, was conceptualised with the goal of creating a learning society with focus on non-literates and neo-literates in the age group of 15 years and above with a special focus on women. This programme seeks to reach 80% literacy in the target group along with reducing gender disparity in literacy to less than 10% by 2012. The programme also aims to reduce other socio and regional disparities.

The main objective of the programme is to impart functional literacy and numeracy to non-literate and neo literate adults. It also seeks to enable neo-literate adults to continue their learning beyond basic literacy and acquire equivalency to the formal educational system. The programme strives to impart relevant skill development programmes to non-literates and neo-literates improve their earning and living conditions. It also aims to promote a learning society by providing opportunities to neo-literate adults for continuing education. The key stakeholders of the programme are the National Literacy Mission, State Literacy Mission, volunteer teachers, preraks or coordinators, state resource centres, change makers in the community of local NGOs and neo-literates above 15 years of age, especially women.

The first step of bringing people, especially women, from their homes to the literacy centres was critical for implementing and sustaining the programme. This was countered by extensive awareness generation campaigns and intensive engagement of preraks with the community. While the initial entry of the targeted population into adult education centres is a challenge, a continuous effort is required to retain them in the learning process. This is again a challenge since the learning material and the environment need to be conducive to their needs.

To sum up, the four key initiatives of the government in the field of education may be categorised and accessed as per below table:
Activities TLC PLP CEP SBP
Basic literacy Yes Yes Yes Yes
Continuing education No No Yes No
Equivalency No No Yes No
Vocational Education No No Yes No
Computer aided learning No No No No
Monitoring Yes Yes Yes Yes
Evaluation No No No Yes
Certification No No No Yes
The chapter has explained various concepts of education employed through education programmes to improve the literacy rate. The chapter also establishes difference in the existing education programmes. The next chapter establishes the objective and hypotheses of the research work. The subsequent chapter will provide a detailed framework of research methodology for conducting the research work.

Chapter 4
RESEARCH DESIGN”Always there is a need for thorough understanding of all research methods with particular reference to their strength, limitations, applicability and appropriateness. Inappropriate method can only lead to unsatisfactory results and disillusionment.”
George J. Mouley
All research is born of doubt and enquiry. Research literally means the search of knowledge. To explore knowledge in a particular subject, defining ‘what’ and ‘how’ of the research work is termed as research methodology. Objectives and hypotheses define the ‘what’ aspect of the research work.
4.1 Objectives of the Study1 To analyse existing models, its drawback and need for new model’.

2 To analyse Project Management models through Basic literacy and Continuing Education components of Adult Education Programs’.

3 To analyse the Age, Gender and Social group wise Achievement rates of functional literacy’.4 To propose an Efficient Management and Monitoring Model to Adult Education Program’.5 To explore the use of ICT for Adult Education’.4.2 HypothesesHypothesis A
H0: There is no significant impact of existing adult education programme on literacy rate.

H1: There is significant impact of existing adult education programme on literacy rate.

Hypothesis B
H0: There is no significant impact of infrastructure on the success of adult education programme
H1: There is significant impact of infrastructure on the success of adult education programme
Hypothesis C
H0: There is no significant impact of curriculum and content on the success of adult education programme
H1: There is significant impact of curriculum and content on the success of adult education programme
Hypothesis D
H0: There is no significant impact of learner’s interest and motivation on the success of adult education programme
H1: There is significant impact of learner’s interest and motivation on the success of adult education programme
4.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGYA research work conducted under strict discipline of research methods creates value and definite outcome for the benefit of stakeholders. A well planned research work involves understanding of the research methodology in detail in order to carry out an exhaustive research. A researcher must be aware of the resources available like time and money, materials, details and content required to execute the research work. A thoughtful plan of establishing a research methodology for the research work enables a detailed, concentrated, and effective research output. Establishing a research methodology binds the researcher to confine the activities of research work like literature review, articulating questionnaire, identifying the sample size, sample population and sample area, selecting the tools and techniques for data analysis according to the subject matter of the research work. The initial step for defining research methodology for the research work encompasses preparing a blue print of research design.
4.3.1 Research Design: Research Design is the genesis of any research work. It develops the pathway for the research to be conducted in a successful and meaningful manner. Choosing the correct research design is critical for any research work. Like-wise, suitable and applicable research design framework was constructed carefully for this research work. Most apt research design that fits in the subject matter is Descriptive / Diagnostic research design. Exploratory research design cannot be utilized, as it is useful in situations where one needs to form a problem statement. In this research, problem statement and research gap from previous research reports and available data of existing adult education programmes have already been identified. Experimental research design also did not fit in this subject as it is relevant in cases where cause and effect relationship is to be studied. One-cell descriptive / diagnostic research design was developed.

4.3.2 Methods of Data Collection: Factors that influence the methods of data collection are objective of the study, time, and money available along with the accuracy desired. Below are the methods for data collection for the research work.

Primary sources: The primary data has been collected through questionnaire, interviews, mails and discussion with the learners participating in existing adult education programme and all relevant functionaries of the programme such as block coordinators, PRI members, preraks and voluntary teachers.

Secondary sources: The secondary data has been collected from Research Journals, Articles, budgetary plans, and information available on the official websites of Human Resource Department, Ministry of HRD, Government of India.

4.3.3. Questionnaire for Primary data source: Final Questionnaire was formulated after conducting Pilot test from the preliminary questions prepared for the pilot test. This process helped in preparing a meaningful, unambiguous and simple questionnaire, which addressed the requirements of the research work most aptly. Pilot tests are often conducted to improve the content of questionnaires. Therefore, a pilot test using the ‘Split Ballot’ technique was conducted to test the questionnaire. This technique involves the use of two or more versions of a questionnaire to measure the same thing and is used to reduce the effect of position bias when using multiple-choice questions in a questionnaire. Two sets of questionnaire were designed and distributed among two groups of learners and functionaries each. Two set of questionnaires completed by 24 learners each (12 learners per set of questionnaire) and two sets of questionnaires were completed by 12 functionaries (six functionaries per set of questionnaire). Hence, the study of these 36 completed questionnaires lead to the final questionnaire. Five separate sets of questionnaire were prepared for each segment of sample population consisting of learners and four functionaries namely block coordinators, PRI members, Preraks and Voluntary Teachers.
4.3.4 Sample Design, Sample Area and Sample Size: Non-probability simple random sampling design was conducted as the requirement of data was from a large population base of learners and functionaries from rural areas. Therefore, within Non-probability sampling, Judgment Sampling was conducted. Judgment sampling allowed low cost, less time consuming and ensured all relevant information is captured correctly for the objective of the research work to accomplish. The research work designed to be conducted in the state of Uttarakhand having 13 districts and total population of more than a crore. Limited available resources of time, money and manpower guided the selection of two districts namely Champawat and Udham Singh Nagar. Champawat was selected for having the highest disparity between male and female literacy rates. Udham Singh Nagar was a more obvious choice due to its lowest literacy rate among the 13 districts. The two districts comprise of 1,273 villages within 11 blocks / tehsils. First, a block from each of the two districts was selected on the basis of same logic as of district’s selection. The two blocks selected were Barakot from Champawat having highest literacy disparity between male and female among the four blocks of the district and Bajpur was selected from Udham Singh Nagar having the lowest literacy rate among the seven blocks of the district. Ten villages were selected, five from each block having the highest population within each block. From Barakot of Champawat, Raighaon, Barakot, Kakrah, Baira Badwal and Sigda were selected. From Bajpur of Udham Singh Nagar, Bajpur, Barhani, Bannakhera, Chakarpur and Maheshpur were selected. Sample size consists of 324 respondents with equal bifurcation of 162 functionaries operating in the ten villages and 162 learners participating in the adult education programme in the selected ten villages. Champawat contributed 77 learners and 68 functionaries and Udham Singh Nagar contributed 85 learners and 95 functionaries. The questionnaires were prepared in English language, but for the purpose of acceptability at rural areas they were translated and administered in Hindi language. All the 324 filled questionnaires were later translated and interpreted in English for usage in the research work.
4.3.5. Data Collection and Analysis Techniques: Collection of data was followed by analysis through various tools like graphs, pie diagram, bar diagram through MS Excel 2010 and statistical techniques like Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient and ANOVA through SPSS 21.0. The data collected through 324 questionnaires contained many open ended questions without any pre-defined options to select. This allowed respondents to openly express their thoughts and views on the matter in their own words. Thus, many responses in the questionnaire contained texts that need to be formulated in a organized and structured manner to be effectively represented in the research work. For this purpose ‘Template Analysis’ technique was employed.

Template Analysis: Template analysis refers to the technique employed to interpret, organize and analyse textual data collected from survey, questionnaires and interviews. Through this technique text from the questions are coded and grouped in small frames of statements. This technique allows the researcher to include only the relevant text data and avoid all irrelevant statements. Templates are prepared with multiple group statements and each text response is assigned to one of the groups. In the process of coding and grouping of text responses, the group statements are reworked, rephrased a number of times to suit the purpose of the question and the responses. Once all text responses were coded and grouped, these several group statements were analysed and rephrased in smaller number of statements to allow a more disciplined and structured representation of the data. While minimising the number of group statements it was judiciously and meticulously ensured that misrepresentation of data in different groups or combining of two divergent groups do not take place, which could dilute the purpose of data analysis. Questions where template analysis has been conducted are explicitly mentioned in chapter 5 while interpreting the data. A template for each question where template analysis has been conducted is provided in Annexure B of the appendices. Template provided in annexure B contains the respective question, the elementary coding and grouping statements and final codes / groups for data interpretation.
4.4. Significance of the Research WorkAdult education has been a major cause of concern for poor economic condition, development and growth of the country. Concern for adult education and improving the literacy rate has always been amongst the priorities of various central and state governments. Yet, after 70 years of efforts 100 percent literacy seems a dream to come true. The research work analyses the existing adult education programmes, identifies the problem areas and suggests an effective model of adult education programme. The major benefits of the study are as below:
Identification of areas of improvement in existing adult education programme.

The report will be helpful for the State as well as Central Government in forming policies to enable the adult education programme to perform better.

The findings and suggestions may be beneficial for all stakeholders to increase literacy rate at a faster pace.

Finally, this study will not only provide a sound literature in the field of adult education for an academic purpose but may also provide scope for future research.
The chapter established the objectives and hypotheses for conducting the research work. Through research methodology the chapter has set the guidelines for the research work. It defined the sample size, sample area and various sources of data. The chapter also illustrates various tools and techniques employed for the research work. The next chapter conducts analysis and interpretation of data gathered through primary and secondary sources.

Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient of responses of Learners and Functionaries
Pearson’s correlation coefficient is the test statistics that measures the statistical relationship, or association, between two continuous variables.  It is known as the best method of measuring the association between variables of interest because it is based on the method of covariance.  It gives information about the magnitude of the association, or correlation, as well as the direction of the relationship. The coefficient of correlation is denoted by “r”.

If the relationship between two variables X and Y is to be ascertained, then the following formula is used:

The value of the coefficient of correlation (r) always lies between ±1. Signifying as below:
r=+1, perfect positive correlationr=-1, perfect negative correlationr=0, no correlation
ANOVA
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is an analysis tool used in statistics that splits the aggregate variability found inside a data set into two parts: systematic factors and random factors. The systematic factors have a statistical influence on the given data set, but the random factors do not. Analysts use the analysis of the variance test to determine the result that independent variables have on the dependent variable amid a regression study. The analyst utilizes the analysis of the variance test results in an f-test to generate additional data that aligns with the proposed regression models. The test allows comparison of more than two groups at the same time to determine whether a relationship exists between them. The test analyzes multiple groups to determine the types between and within samples.
The one-way ANOVA compares the means between the groups and determines whether any of those means are statistically significantly different from each other. Specifically, it tests the null hypothesis:

where µ = group mean and k = number of groups. If, however, the one-way ANOVA returns a statistically significant result, we accept the alternative hypothesis (HA), which is that there are at least two group means that are statistically significantly different from each other.

6.1 Hypotheses TestingThe research work embodies evaluation of existing adult education programmes to identify the improvement areas and suggest an effective adult education model. To achieve this major objective of the research work hypotheses were defined in chapter 4. Testing of hypotheses on the basis of data analysis and interpretation through various techniques allows the research work a clear and explicit outcome.
Chapter 7
SUGGESTIONSThe research work aims at evolving an effective model of adult education based on the existing adult education programme. Having studied extensively various reports, articles, journals and survey data it is pertinent to suggest an effective model of adult education that is executable, desirable, acceptable, functional, result oriented which can be monitored and tracked frequently. To address these requirements “Technologically Inclusive Adult Education (TIAE)” has been suggested.

The concept of Technologically Inclusive Adult Education is based on the existing adult education programme. TIAE provides the right ingredients to the existing programme to function at a faster pace and more effectively. Thus, there is no requirement of dissolving existing programmes to execute TIAE. TIAE will provide the back-end and front-end support mechanism to Saakshar Bharat Programme. Back-end system architect will include all aspects of developing software and managing the complete operation of the application. Front-end system architect will focus on providing digital teaching and learning experience to users like functionaries and learners. This model may be executed at a state /district /block or tehsil. TIAE proposed model may work as per below figure:
7.3. Branding and Fresh Campaign for TIAEThe concept of TIAE requires a fresh campaign to ensure inclusiveness and participation from everyone. It was observed through study of various literatures and while conducting survey that even though elders in a family are illiterate but the elders ensure that the new generation becomes educated. Although education for children is out of the scope of the research work, yet it is relevant to mention here that the scenario of children education that was ten years ago has immensely improved as on date. With the given fact, it may be conferred that each family has at least one literate person and many families would have none illiterates. Moreover, with the growth of telecommunication industry across the length and breadth of the country has ensured at least one technology device in the form of mobile phone or computer in most of the families, even in villages. Hence, a family level campaign may be proposed that would include all literates in a family to participate in education of illiterates in the respective family. Involving family members to participate in the education programme to eradicate illiteracy would help the education programme to attain its objective at the earliest. To implement “family literacy” campaign posters or banners may be stick at the outer walls of houses where each family member is literate. Sample banner may look as below:
7.4. Probable Challenge for TIAEIlliterates would not use the technology due to unavailability and incapability: Technology is available everywhere now and at reasonable prices as well. Most families have at least one mobile, which negates the availability concern. Through technology, the other concern of incapability also gets eliminated through a feature of ‘voice command’ available in almost every mobile phone. People with impaired vision are using mobile phones, which have made their life a lot easier.
There may be many challenges for implementing TIAE, which could be addressed with positivity and with the help of technology. TIAE has been presented here as a concept which outlines the basic framework. All technical and operational aspects of the model need to be studied with the help of a team of qualified computer engineers who posses all relevant technical knowledge to develop and execute it. TIAE also calls for collaboration of technical teams with experienced people in education programmes to create an application useful for all. TIAE will enable higher level of participation from all functionaries to provide relevant inputs and feedback for creating teaching and study material as per the requirement of the learners. Functionary’s higher degree of active involvement will be required for identifying and publicising the success stories through the application. They would also help in campaigning activities pertaining to “family literacy”.

The chapter has suggested and explained the new effective adult education model, Technologically Inclusive Adult Learning (TIAL) that would complement the existing education programme and provide required impetus to the growth of literacy. It highlights the benefits of TIAL against each of the identified problems of existing education programmes. The next chapter will provide conclusion to the research work and enlist the limitations and scope for future research of the thesis.
Chapter 8
ConclusionThe research work has provided an insight to the various circumstances and environment of adult education programmes. The inherent problems and the menace of illiteracy have engulfed the growth opportunities of the people, villages, districts, states and the country. The research work has allowed a detailed study of previous researches and all relevant articles, reports and journals. The extensive study through literature review and field survey guided the research to attain its desired and defined outcome of highlighting the problems of existing education programmes and defining an effective model of adult education. The research work has highlighted the growth of literacy and the problems pertaining to areas of existing education programmes that may be eliminated through the suggested model of adult education.
The construct of the research work is presented chapter wise as below:
Chapter One: First chapter of the thesis introduces the concept of adult education in both, a global perspective and Indian perspective. The chapter highlights the existing adult education programmes and describes various stakeholders involved in its execution. The chapter discusses the role of functionaries and learners extensively.
Chapter Two: The second chapter narrates the literature reviewed for the research work. The literature reviewed is presented in two different portions, one from various theses of universities in India and second from articles, journals and reports. By the extensive and elaborate study of all literature, research gap has been identified and drawbacks of existing adult education model are enumerated. The chapter also describes the need for suggesting a new model of adult education.

Chapter Three: Various education programmes with their relevance and performance shortcomings have been highlighted in this chapter. The chapter brings out detailed understanding of continuing education programme and its importance. The chapter highlights various differences between the education programmes.

Chapter Four: The chapter lists the objectives and hypotheses of the research work. Research methodology has been defined in the chapter with detail. The defined research methodology of descriptive research design with simple random sampling has allowed the research to be carried out in a disciplined environment unwavering from the predefined objectives. Champawat and Udham Singh Nagar are the two districts selected for conducting the survey in the state of Uttarakhand. Five villages each from Barakot block of Champawat and Bajpur block of Udham Singh Nagar were selected for the survey. Total 324 respondents participated, 162 learners and 162 functionaries. Champawat district was represented by 77 learners and 68 functionaries whereas Udham Singh Nagar district was represented by 85 learners and 94 functionaries.

Chapter Five: Data analysis and interpretation has been conducted for the responses collected from 324 respondents in the five different set of questionnaires represented by learners and four functionaries namely block coordinators, PRI members, Preraks and Voluntary teachers. Each question has been represented through tables and graphs and interpreted individually signifying respective objective of the research work. Various tools and techniques were employed to interpret the data such as tables, bar charts, pie charts and line charts through MS Excel 2010 and Karl Pearson’s coefficient correlation and ANOVA through SPSS 21.0. The five set of questionnaire were represented by many open questions instigating the respondents to express their opinion freely about the subject matter. All such open text responses were incorporated through template analyses.

Chapter Six: The outcome of literature review and data analysis and interpretation from the survey led to a number of findings narrated in this chapter. The findings highlight the problems of the existing education programmes identified through the primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data source represented by questionnaire also pondered the respondents regarding inclusion of technology in education programmes and enriching the curriculum by adding professional and skill development. The chapter provides a structured base for suggesting an effective adult education model to overcome all drawbacks of the existing programmes.

Chapter Seven: Chapter named Suggestions defines an effective education model that facilitates the existing education model by eradicating all the identified existing problems. The suggestion in the form of Technologically Inclusive Adult Education (TIAE) has been explained as a concept. TIAE’s advantage against each identified problem has also been narrated in the chapter. Suggestion on conducting a continuous campaign of “family literacy” has been advised complementing TIAE. The concept advocates development and execution of an application compatible for any platform like windows, android or ios that can be accessed through mobile, computers or tablets. The application to be based on internet connection only for installation, upload and download activities, rest all transaction may function in offline mode making it adaptable for rural environment.

8.1. Limitations of the Research WorkEvery research scholar experiences certain limitations while preparing the thesis for his / her topic. Limitations are the barriers and obstacles faced by the scholar while conducting the research work. This research work is an earnest effort to present an exact data on the topic, but there are certain uncontrollable factors that influence the research process. Some limitations faced during the research work are as follows:
Geographical limitation: The survey study pertains to the ten villages of the two districts of Uttarakhand namely Champawat and Udham Singh Nagar and has no relevance to another state or city.
Operational Limitations:
a. The subject matter demands an effective adult education model with the use of ICT that could eliminate the draw-backs of existing education programmes. Suggesting a model which is comprehensive in all its perspective of development and at execution level requires knowledge of various other fields like software development, software application maintenance and other related technological know-how. Negligence of technical knowledge prevented the researcher from presenting the complete system architect of the new model.
b. Questionnaires were administered through personal interview, telephonically and through local support due to language, and other socio-cultural barriers.

c. Reluctance of learners and functionaries in sharing their opinion regarding the problems of existing education programme in detail.

d. Respondent’s answers to the opinion based on open questions included responses written in Hindi language which required translation and interpretation.

Limitations have been taken in positive spirit, and an honest effort has been made to minimize them, to ensure accurate data and effective outcome of the research work could be presented.
8.2. Scope for future ResearchThe research work has explored many avenues for future research such as mentioned below:
An elaborative study of identifying the various skill development and professional education lessons that could be included in the curriculum.

A technical study of developing the suggested model for effective execution.

A study may be initiated in the lines of suggested model to be implemented in other parts of the country.

Similar study may be conducted in other parts of the country to ascertain the problem areas of existing education programmes.
A study may also be undertaken to test run a technology based application and its performance in the rural area in the field of education.