CHAPTER ONE 1Introduction 1

CHAPTER ONE
1Introduction
1.1 General Background
A recent Forest Resources Assessment of FAO (2010) estimated the global forest cover at just over 4 billion hectares, which is 31 percent of the total land area of the world; this corresponds to an estimate of average of 0.6 ha. Forests are different things to different people in different places and are also defined in various ways in different international legal frameworks (FAO, 2010).
Forests may be valued as ecological, political, economic and cultural entities (Dinku ShiferawJote, 2017).
The social, economic, environmental and even political significance of natural resources in general and forest resources in particular, has been researched and discussed both locally and globally (EEPFE, 2008; EDRI, 2008).Such researchesand discussionsare still going on with the help of new technologies.
According to (EEPFE,2008; EDRI, 2008),the value of forests has become much clearer now more than ever as the planet is faced with looming environmental crisis and Countries are pulling efforts towards increasing the green cover, mainly forest cover, of the earth.
Natural forests across the world are providing wide range of products, ecosystem services and social and economic opportunities. The multiple-value of forests has long been appreciated and used by forest-dependent people in many countries and the goal of forest management is stated in the laws of many countries, in much the same way as the guiding principles of sustainable forest management and became well-established in laws following the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 (FAO,2013).

Even though, forest resources are providing economic, social and environmental opportunities, in many developing countries unjust and unclear land ownership conditions and weak government policy implementation lead to excessive and inappropriate use of forest resources that causes destruction.

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A key issue relating to forests and forestry in Africa is the rapid decline in forest cover as well as the degradation of what remains as a consequence of several factors. Between 1990 and 2000, Africa’s forest cover loss has been estimated at about 53 million hectares andthis accounting for about 56 percent of the global forest loss (Nair and J. Tieguhong, 2004).

Like many other developing countries of Africa, Ethiopia is facing problem of forest resource destruction due to lack of proper policy framework and population pressure, which direct to expansion of agricultural land, overgrazing, unsystematic felling of timber for fuel wood and construction purposes.
Historical sources indicate that about 40% of Ethiopia’s land area was originally covered with dense forest, mostly coniferous and broad-leaved types and another 26% consisted of the savanna woodlands (Dinku Shiferaw, 2017).
According to Dinku (2017), at the beginning of the 1950?s, dense forests were reduced to 16% of the country’s entire land area andin the 1980s; the estimate for land areas covered by forests was 3.65%). At present, this resource has declined to an estimated 2.6 per cent or less.

Deforestation and the resulting environmental degradation are a major problem in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and a key factor challenging food security, community livelihood and sustainable development (Ellen Winberg, 2011).

According to Ellen Winberg (2011),Ethiopia has been subject to extensive deforestation; estimates show that the country is losing up to 140 000 hectares of forest each year Humans benefit from and, in many cases, are reliant upon forests for regulating and supporting cultural and provisional services. However, the expanse of forest areas is declining across the globe, partly as a result of logging activities and also due to conversion of habitats to croplands –agricultural expansion accounts for up to 43 percent of tropical forest losses.

Due to its high dependence on natural resources for economic development, Ethiopia is one of the highly vulnerable countries to the effects of climate change. On the other hand, it is not a major emitter of greenhouse gases that cause climate change, but has a huge potential to mitigate the climate change effect by storing substantial carbon stocks in about 15.3 million hectares of natural forests, wood lands, bamboo and plantation (UNDP,2017).
The integration of economic development and environmental management has become a major concern for society, businesses and governments.
Forests, through their products and services, are key resources in supporting rural livelihoods. In Ethiopia millions of rural households and urban residents depend on forests for a major part of their income (Ahmid Said ;Mulugeta Lemenih, 2013).

Due to lack of effective implementationof forest management policies, strategies, laws and standards, the welfare of citizen’s and environmental sustainability is negatively affected.
Even though, many studies were carried out by organization and people for example by Center for International Forestry Research (2015), on “Strategy for scaling up effective forest management practices in the region with emphasis on Management of dry forests and woodlands” and the publication on International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy (2016), the study made by Semeneh Bessie, Fekadu Beyene, Bekele Hundie, Degye Goshu and Yigardu Mulatu on the issue of land Use/land cover change and its effects on bamboo forest in the region and also other researchers more or less focused on bamboo tree and dry land forest.
The researchers also emphasized on Forest Management Challenges and Opportunities in Regional State as a general, there is a gap on addressing all forest type and the detail information of management at the study area of selected woreda. So that, my review will be carried out to fill those mentioned gap and examine challenges and oppotunities of various forest resource management systems used in Beneshangul Gumuz Regional State particularly in Bullen woreda (two selected kebele; Dobi and Bullen 02 kebele).
By examining different management systems, an attempt will be made to indicate the ineffectiveness of current forest resource management system with the way forward for long-term sustainable forest management to succeed a combination of resource management and eco-development paradigm promotion in the study area.
1.2 Description of the Study Area
The Benishangul Gumuz National Regional State (BGNRS) is one of the nine Federal States of the Country. The region is located in the Northwestern part of the country at 9017′ to 1206’N latitude and 340101 to 37041 E longitude bordering with Sudan in the West, Oromya Regional State in the East, Amhara Regional State in the North and Gambella Regional State in the South. The regional state has a total land area of 50,381km2 with a total population of about 580,000 (MELKAMU BESSIE, 2004).
The regional capital, Asossa is located at a distance of 687 km west of Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia.
It is one of the regions with a very low population density of almost 12 persons per square kilometers.
Based on CSA (2007) data, the total population of the region is about 670,000 people, and the total population of the region is projected at 711, 702 people in 2009. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development
With the total area of around 50,381 km2, the region represents around 4.6% of the total land area of Ethiopia (UNDP, 2017).
From the total land area of the region, 49% is woodland, 28% shrub land, 9% lowland bamboo(oxytenanthera abyssinica), 5% cultivated land, 3% grass land, 2% forest land, 2% rock and bare soil and 2% others(EEPFE, 2008 EDRI, 2008).
According to the report of EEPFE, 2008 and EDRI, 2008, the proportion of the various land cover types in the region is more or less uniform. Vegetation patterns are directly related with rainfall and temperature and vary by altitude, local variations of soil and drainage factors. The wood lands can be divided into Acacia-commiphora woodland found in the drier lowlands in the west and the broad leafed combretum-terminalia woodland found in the wetter eastern lowlands (ibid).
The region is divided into 3 administrative zones namely, Asossa Zon, Kemash Zon and Mettekel Zon. 21 ‘Wordas’ are found in these three administrative Zones. The study area bullen woreda is found in Mettekel administrative Zon. It is located in northwestern Ethiopia lying within 10?00? to 11?07? N and 35?45? and 36?07? E Tariku Berihun1, et.al (2017). The altitude varies from 900 to 2300m ibid. According to the woreda level report, the total land coverage of Bullen woreda is 325,239.75. From the total land area of the woreda, 70,344 is covered with forest, 46,826 is used for agricultural purpose and 40,462 is used for grazing land. The following figure indicates the geographical location of Bullen woreda.

Figure1. Location of Bullen District at regional and national settings. Source: – Tariku Berihun and Eyayu Molla (2017),
1.3 Statement of the problem

Ethiopia has faced a number of environmental harms such as severe soil erosion, land degradation, deforestation, increasing desertification, drought, flood and the decline of bio diversity to name but few (DinkuShiferawJote,2017).
Around 71.5% of the country falls within the UNDP’s definition of desertification, caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and poor farming practices (UNDP, 2017).

The forest in the study area (BGRS), which is contributing for environmental and socio-economic benefit of the national income is depleting because of some factors and conservation problem. The forest resource of this region is under serious threat due to unsustainable use. Like in many other parts of the country, the problem of forest degradation is a very serious environmental problem in the region. A decade ago, the area was covered with rich natural and indigenous vegetation (DinkuShiferawJote, 2017).
The depletion of forest resources was mainly due to use of forest products for household and the traditional system of agriculture.Major causes of forest degradation in the region are forest fire, illegal logging, overgrazing and charcoal production. Indigenous forest based livelihood activities and socio-cultural attachments of the local communities with forest resources, is diminishing it rapidly.

The people of the region mainly in the rural areause intentional fire for clearing forests to get grazing and agricultural land.Besides to intentional fire, they annually cut bamboo and construct their house, they produce charcoal, they also daily cut bamboo tree and sell for their household consumption.As a result, the forest resource of the area is under serious threat.

As I tried to mention organizations and authors who done their study on the issue of forest management challenges and opportunities in the general background of my study with their emphasis on, for example, by Center for International Forestry Research (2015), on “Strategy for scaling up effective forest management practices in the region with emphasis on Management of dry forests and woodlands” and the on publication of International Journal of Sustainable Development ; World Policy (2016) the study made by Semeneh Bessie, Fekadu Beyene, Bekele Hundie, Degye Goshu and Yigardu Mulatu on the issue of land Use/land cover change and its effects on bamboo forest in the region and also other researchers more or less focused on bamboo tree and dry land forest in the regional state as general less emphasis and the study area.
As a general, still there is a gap on addressing the problem of forest resource management on the two selected woredas of BGRS.
Hence, this research focuses on assessing the Challenges and opportunities of Forest resource Management system for sustainable use. The research also insights the existing problem by providing updated and first hand information to fill the research gap of the current knowledge on the study area. Sopolicy challenges and opportunities of forest resource managementin the study area will be identified at the national, regional and woreda level.
Research Questions
1. What are the causes and effects of forest degradation?
2. What are the challenges for forest resource management?
3. What are the opportunities of forest resource management?
1.4. Objective of the Study
Main Objective
The main objective of the study is to assess the challenges and opportunities of Forest resource Management.
Specific Objectives
1 To assess the causes and effects of deforestation
2 To assess the challenges of forest resource management
3 To examine the opportunities of forest resource management
1.5 Scope or Delimitation of the study
The present study mainly deals with the assessment of challenges and opportunities of forest resource management. The study also analyses the trends and changes in forest and forest degradation control. Spatially, the study will be confined only to the regional boundary of Benshangul Gumuz Regional state two selected Kebeles in Bullen Woreda among the 21 woreda in the regional state with the study time limitation between March and June 2018.
1.6 Significant of the Study
Now a day Ethiopia has been facing the problem of deforestation and degradation all over the country. Even though researches have done on the issue, the rates and extent of the problems are still debatable due to limitations of reliable data, and as the result of this, the issueis not clearly understood. So that, this study is considered to fill the gap and also, it is an important step for those who conduct research on the same issueon the study area. The study contributes additional insights and to address challenges and opportunities of forest resource management issues, causes of forest degradation and to understand the current situation of forest resources management. It is also expected to generate updated and first hand information for those who are interested to do research on the issue of policy challenges of forest resource management in the study area.
1.7 Definition of key terms
Forest: -Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use, (FAO, 2010).

Other wooded land: – Land not classified as “Forest”, spanning more than 0.5 hectares; with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of 5–10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees above 10 percent, (FAO, 2010).It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use,

Other land: -Other Land is often unmanaged, and in that case changes in carbon stocks and non-CO2emissions and removals are not estimated (Jennifer C. Jenkins, Hector D. Ginzo and Stephen Ogle 2006)
Protected areas: -An area of land and/or sea, especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means (Nigel Dudley and Sue Stolton 2007).
Afforestation: Establishment of forest through planting and/or deliberate seeding on landthat, until then, was not classified as forest.

Reforestation: – restoration of the forest through planting and intentional seeding onlandto cover degraded forest area.
Natural expansion of forest: forest spreading out through natural progression on land that.
Forest area with management plan:-forest area that has a long-term (ten years or more) documented management plan, aiming at defined management goals, which is periodically revised (FAO, 2010).
Forest area under sustainable forest management: -Is the area covered by forest and under the management of the country.

Chapter Two
2. Literature Review
2.1. Introduction
The review of related literatures will try to assess significant theoretical, empirical and conceptual issues and definitions associated with the main theme of the study. This section will look at forest management from various local and regional perspectives and challenges facing forest management.
2.2. Theories, Definitions and Meaning of Forest Management
Concern about environmental change was started over two millennia ago, when Plato wrote about the hills of Attica in Greece that had lost forest cover. However, management idea was promoted very recently and principally natural resource management had become the modernization approach. This approach emerges from modernization framework, which “is firmly entrenched in, and driven by, the enlightenment tradition of positivist science (TolaGemechu, 2007).
International and popular concern about the wide-scale loss and degradation of forest areas, particularly in tropical countries, emerged in the 1980s and, coupled with the Brundtland Commission’s calls for ‘Sustainable Development’, resulted in forest issues receiving considerable attention at the 1992 Rio ‘Earth Summit’ (the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED). The emergence of C&I was an integral part of these developments in the global forest agenda (Michael J. Spilsbury, 2005)
It is also clear and argued that in the context of global change and sustainable development, forest management activities play a key role through mitigation of climate change. However, forests are also affected by climate change and their contribution to mitigation strategies may be influenced by stresses possibly resulting from it. Socioeconomically, global forests are important because many citizens depend on the goods, services, and financial values provided by forests. Within this context, mitigation options have to be sought.
As Michael J. Spilsbury (2005), defined,forest Management is the way in which forests and the trees within them are managed and used to offer forest products and other benefits for the society. It is also organization and control of, access to and utilization of trees or natural forests and resources associated with them.
Natural forest management is also the regulated and controlled harvesting of different resources from the forest joint with reproductive and protective actions to maintain or increase successive forest stands and wild life.
According to Duncker, P. S (2012), forest management is the processes of planning and implementing practices for the stewardship and use of forests and other wooded land aimed at realizing specific environmental, economic, social and /or cultural objectives. It includes management at all scales such as normative, strategic, tactical and operational level management.
The intensity of forest management is often described using either economic or ecological considerations. In managerial economics, intensity addresses the extent to which the production factors, such as soil, labor, energy, and capital, are used. The intensity is set in relation to the management objectives to define the optimal input of production factors. ibid
In a broad sense, forest management is related with the idea of providing appropriate safe guard to a forest so that it remains healthy and vigorous, and can sustain all of our desires. It is also a process that incorporates all of the science, principles, practices, and techniques essential to provide this proper care.
2.2.1 Forest Resource Management Approaches
Despite increasing concern over the loss of tropical forests and despite significant local and international efforts to find solutions to the problem, the rate of deforestation in the tropics continues to increase. The 1990 forest assessment conducted by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) indicated a mean annual tropical deforestation rate of 0.8% during the 1980–1990 decade, as compared to 0.6% during 1976–1980 (Kamaljit et. al 1998)
The impact of logging on biodiversity depends both upon the intensity of logging particularly the number of stems extracted per unit area and the amount of care and planning that goes into the extraction process. According to TolaGemechu (2007), modernization assumes technologies as universal and implies that what has gone before is not as good as what we have now.
This framework influenced both the approach and thinking to natural resource management practices and policies of development among others.
Forest management approaches can be characterized based on an objective and a set of basic principles reflecting decisions on operations that occur at various stages during the development of a stand. The FMAs form a gradient that reflects the intensity of manipulation of natural processes and structures (Duncker, P. S., and S. M. Barreiro, 2012)
2.2.2 Global Perspectives of Forest Cover Change
Human society and the global economy are linked with forests resources. More than 1 billion people depend on forests ecosystem for their livelihoods. Forest ecosystems play a significant role in stabilizing the climate: providing water, food, wood products, and vital medicines, and supporting much of the worlds biodiversity (Dinkushiferaw, 2017).According to Dinku (2017),the global forest area fell by 129 million hectares (3.1 percent) during the period 1990 –2015 and to just under 4 billion hectares. As stated by Hosonumaet al. (2012), timber extraction and logging account for more than 70% of total degradation in Latin America and Asia. Fuel wood collection and charcoal production are the main degradation drivers for the African continent, and of small to moderate importance in Asia and Latin America. Uncontrolled fires are more prominent in Latin America. In terms of absolute net forest area change over the period 2000–2010, the largest driver remains commercial agriculture, with the largest deforested area located in Latin America. In Africa and Asia, subsistence and commercial agriculture contribute roughly equally to forest area changeibid.
A recent Forest Resources Assessment of FAO (2010) estimated the global forest cover at just over 4 billion hectares, which is 31 percent of the total land area of the world; this corresponds to an estimate of average of 0.6 ha. Forests are different things to different people in different places and are also defined in various ways in different international legal frameworks. Forests may be valued as ecological, political, economic and cultural entities.

2.2.3 Definition and Concept of Forest
Due to its complex nature, there are over 1,500 documented definitions of forests across the world and these derived from the international community, national definitions, and state, provincial or local definitions. Customary forest dwellers and indigenous peoples may define and interpret their environment differently across regions, cultures and generations. Forests also have a customary and spiritual meaning as a basis of livelihood, cultural significance and individual and collective identification (Dinkushiferaw, 2017).
According to FAO (2012), forest is defined as the presence of trees with land cover more than 0.5 ha. The tree must be able to reach a minimum of 5 m in situ and canopy cover at least 10%. Existing international definitions of forest vary from one another in a number of ways. For examples, FAO (2010) defined forest based on a minimum threshold for height of tree 5 meter, a minimum crown cover 10% and minimum of forest area size (0.5ha). On the other hand according to Dinku (2017), forest is defined as an area of 0.5–1.0 ha with a minimum of a tree crown cover of 10–30%, with tree defined as a plant with the capability of growing to be more than 2–5 m tall. Many countries can choose from the specified ranges for the forest definition with appropriate to their need modified to their desires. For example Brazil defines forest as an area of land greater than 1 ha, with more than 30% canopy cover and a minimum tree height of 5 m (FAO, 2012). In 2007 Ethiopia defined forest as community of plants, either naturally grown-up or developed by planting and mainly consisting of trees and other plants have woody character. In February 2015, Ethiopia adopt a new forest definition as follows, land cover at least 0.5 ha covered by trees with the potential to reach these thresholds in situ due to coarse. The reason for Ethiopia to change the national forest definition is to better capture dry and lowland-moist vegetation resources. In specific, the reason for lowering the tree height from 5 m to 2 m is to include Termilania-Combretumdense woodlands found in Gambella and BenishangulGumuz Regional States, which in its primary state consists of trees reaching a height of around 2–3 m and above (Dinkushiferaw, 2017).
2.2.4 Deforestation and Land degradation in Ethiopia
Issues related to deforestation, land degradation and disharmony between stakeholders, have created a continuing theme in many international forest related workshops, scientific journals and publications for more than three decades.
Among the complex environmental problems Ethiopia is facing soil erosion and deforestation most seriously that are believed to be the root causes of the recurring food shortage and famine (GirmaAssefa 2015).
This attention is motivated by significant global deforestation and its effect on government revenue, environmental degradation and livelihood opportunities of peoples that depend on forest. Empirical data in country demonstrate that the main cause of forest destruction and conflict among stakeholders is weak governance, which is characterized by limited transparency, accountability and participation (Hunggul Y, et.al 2017).
Although concerns related to weak forest governance receive attention in various national forums, there is still limited knowledge about the effect of deforestation, degradation and livelihoods at local levels, as well as the idea of addressing this issue to attain sustainable forest management.
In developing countries including Ethiopia, deforestation is the major source of emissions from the forestry sector, has remained at high levels since 1990. The causes of tropical deforestation are complex, varying across countries and over time in response to different social, cultural, and macroeconomic conditions ibid.
According to FAO (2015) Land degradation resulted on reduction or loss, in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rain fed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pasture, forest and wood lands resulting from land uses or from a process or combination of processes, including processes arising from human activities and habitation patterns, such as:
(i) Soil erosion caused by wind and/or water;
(ii) Deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil; and
(iii) Long-term loss of natural vegetation.
2.2.5 Causes of Forest Degradation in Ethiopia
Scholars recognized different causes of forest degradation for example according to FAO (2012 ) degradation is usually caused by disturbances, which vary in terms of the extent, quality, origin and occurrence of the changing process can be natural and caused by fire, storm, drought, snow, pest, disease, atmospheric pollution, change in temperature. (Or it can be human induced for example illegal logging, excessive fuel wood collection, shifting cultivation, and overgrazing). There are also other indirect underlying reasons for degradation such as inappropriate policies, lack of clearly established tenure rights, institutional weaknesses, and lack of financial resources, corruption, and various economic, technological, cultural and demographic factors (DinkuShiferaw, 2017). The following are the detailed causes of forest degradation in Ethiopia.
1. Forest Fires
Fires are a major tool that is used in clearing the forest area for shifting and permanent agriculture and for developing pastures in Ethiopia. Fire used responsibly can be a important tool in agricultural and forest management but if abused it can be a significant cause of deforestation. Based on the data available from 118 countries representing 65 per cent of the global forest area including Ethiopia, an average of 19.8 million hectares or one per cent of all forests were reported to be significantly affected each year by forest fires (SumitChakravarty, 2015).
Forest fire for example commonly happen in forests, and become a major cause of forest degradation. Forest fire may arise on account of natural, accidental, and human causes. Almost every year, forest fires are witnessed across different forest region of the country, which persistently affects the economy and biodiversity (DinkuShiferaw, 2017).Moreover, forest fire plays an important role in the decline of both quality and quantity of forest resources.
2. Overgrazing
Ethiopia has the largest livestock resources among the African Countries. There are about 35 million tropical livestock units (TLU) or about 80 million head (ca. 30 million cattle, over 42 million sheep and goats and 7 million equines) of livestock found in the country (DinkuShiferaw,2017). The major source of feed for the vast population of livestock in Ethiopia is Forest grazing and browsing. Some 17,5000km2 or nearly 35 percent of Ethiopia rangelands are found under forest cover of bush and shrub, and fodder deriving from forest lands provides 10 percent and 60 percent of livestock feed in the wet and dry seasonal respectively. In pastoral areas, forest grazing and browsing constitute the sole land-use system (DinkuShiferaw, 2017).
Overgrazing is more common in drier areas of the tropics where pastures degraded by overgrazing are subject to soil erosion. Stripping trees to provide fodder for grazing animals can also be a problem in some dry areas of the tropics but is probably not a major cause of deforestation.
In the highlands, the expansion of grazing land beyond the land?s carrying capacity occurs at the expense of the remaining natural vegetation and further land degradation. The scarcity of grazing land and livestock feed causes the wide spread use of natural vegetation particularly forests to feed livestock (GirmaAssefa 2015).
Livestock pressure and stock management (mainly based on free grazing system) are major sources of land degradation. Only 25 percent of Ethiopia’s high livestock population grazes in the rangelands, where as 75% graze in the highlands (EPA, 2010). Overgrazing destroys the most palatable and useful species in the plant mixture and reduces the density of the plant cover, thereby increasing the erosion hazard and reducing the nutritive value and the carrying capacity of the land.
According to GirmaAssefa (2015), in Ethiopia, overgrazing is mainly due to keeping large number of cattle in forest and wood lands. The consequences of overgrazing have been land degradation, soil erosion, soil compaction as well as reduced species diversity and density of the vegetation.
3 Illegal Logging
The demand for timber and furniture are other causes of forest degradation. This demand leads people to do illegal logging and cutting down of immature trees in the forest areas. Selective logging is described as a harvesting system practiced mainly in native forests and in hardwood plantations where a few desired and commercially valuable trees species are harvested following a predefined criteria as opposed to clear cutting where a whole forest compartment is completely clear-cut in the harvesting process. Selective harvesting is done to remove some portion of the tanding trees leaving a viable forest for natural regeneration and growth (DinkuShiferaw, 2017).
Logging does not necessarily cause deforestation. However, logging can seriously cause degradation of forests. However, logging provides access roads to follow-on settlers and log scales can help finance the cost of clearing remaining trees and preparing land for planting of crops or pasture. Logging thus can make a condition for deforestation (SumitChakravarty, 2015)
Illegal and /or unsustainable logging and using of forest products seriously undermine national efforts to progress sustainable forest management in the country. Governments, mostly in developing countries suffer lose an estimated US$15 billion a year due to uncollected taxes and royalties. Recent estimates indicate that up to 15% of internationally traded round wood might originate from illegal sources. Rare tree species and those with high value for timber or non-timber forest products are often in danger of becoming locally extinct because of logging. (Michael J. Spilsbury, 2005)
4 Fuel wood and charcoal making
Most of the people who are living in developing countries are largely depend on fuel wood as major energy for cooking and heating. High dependence on biomass energy, which is accounted as 90% cooking energy supply for the country and within this, 99.9% is in rural energy supply of wood product. Hotels and universities also use Wood as it is cheaper than electricity which leads to forest degradation (AbrahaHatsey, 2015).
GirmaAssefa (2015), also argued that fuel wood consumption is one of the main causes of deforestation and excessive cutting trees for firewood before they are fully grown, leads to the loss of potential growth of the forest stands in these countries.
In Ethiopia, 85 percent of domestic energy supply is resulting from forest products and this clearing land without selection to expand agricultural lands is the main cause of loss of biodiversity. As population increases household energy consumption also increases. Large population of the country that found in the rural area depends on fuel wood and charcoal not only for sources of energy but also for the purpose of household income generation.
The collection and burning of fuel wood create environmental problems including soil erosion, loss of watershed areas, and emission of particulate and other pollutants. Firewood gathering and charcoal making have contributed to land degradation and forest destruction in the country (GirmaAssefa 2015).
5 Expansion of farming land
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment reports that agricultural land is expanding in approximately 70% of the countries examined. The impact of agricultural expansion has been particularly severe in tropical forest regions, where pasture and crop land is expected to continue to increase over the next 30 to 50 years (IUCN, 2010).In developing countries, as the land degrades people are forced to migrate for searching new forest to get better land for agricultural purpose; which leads to increasing deforestation. Agricultural land expansion is generally viewed as the main source of deforestation contributing around 60 per cent of total tropical deforestation. Shifting agriculture also called slash and burn agriculture is the clearing of forested land for raising or growing the crops until the soil is exhausted of nutrients and/or the site is overtaken by weeds and then moving on to clear more forest (SumitChakravarty, 2015).

According to Sumit Chakravarty, (2015) shifting cultivation has been often reported as the main agent of deforestation. Smallholder production in deforestation and the growing number of such producers notably shifting cultivators were the main cause of deforestation.
Mostly all reports indicate that, shifting agriculture as responsible for about one half of tropical deforestation and some put it up to two-thirds. Shifting agriculture was greatest in Asia (about 30 per cent) but only about 15 per cent over the whole tropical world. It appears that the proportion of direct conversion of forest to agriculture is increasing and the proportion of shifting agriculture is decreasing with time.
The rapid population growth coupled with accelerated land degradation has led to an increasing demand for agricultural land. The rapid degradation and depletion of the forest resources base is already finding its expression in the different sectors of the economy such as agriculture, water resources, energy and biodiversity (DinkuShiferaw, 2017). The expansion of agricultural land by clearing forests is the major cause of deforestation in Ethiopia. The greatest threats to the remaining natural forests of Ethiopia are man-made clearing for farm land expansion at present level, the clearing of forests by investors for coffee and tea plantations, and indicated that uncontrolled exploitation of the timber and fuel wood in the remaining woody vegetation. These pressures are well organized by the forestry sector and are highlighted as the major threats in the environmental policy of the country. In line with this, so many studies indicated that the growing demand for more food and farm land issue is raising conflict between agricultural development and sustainable development. The conflict is that the agricultural areas have to expand the production of food and farmers are continuously looking for agricultural land, which results in clearing of vast areas of forests by farmers yearly. As a result land degradation is occurring all over the country and this is resulting in drought with in the country (DinkuShiferaw, 2017).
2.2.6 Effects of deforestation
Deforestation is a contributor to global warming and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions (Williams, 2006). Removal of forest cover leads to a loss of animal habitat, loss of biodiversity, shortage fuel wood, agricultural land soil erosion and drought (GirmaAssefa 2015).

1. Climate change
It is clear that continuous deforestation is negatively contributing for global climate change. In addition to their economic and social use forests stabilize climate condition that is favorable for living things. When forest degradation occurs, the accumulation of CO2 and other components that contribute for global warming will also increase which cause suffrage on the earth.
Climate is the interaction of all of the components of the earth’s system and it includes the solar and infrared radiations and sensible and latent heat fluxes are all influenced by changes in the earth’s surface. According to IUCN (2010) report, as forest ecosystems are vital stores for carbon, their degradation has severe implications for climate change. Forests account for about 50% of the total above-ground terrestrial organic carbon, and deforestation and forest degradation are estimated to cause about 20% of greenhouse gas emissions annually.
It is often stressed that the changes of vegetation type can modify the nature of the regional atmospheric circulation and the large-scale external moisture fluxes. So that Changes in surface energy resulting from land surface change can have a profound effect on the Earth’s climate. (GirmaAssefa, 2015).
According to GirmaAssefa (2015), the significant role of the forest within the climate system should not be surprising. Apart from their role as reservoirs, sinks, and sources of carbon, forests provide numerous additional ecosystem services. Many of these ecosystem services directly or indirectly influence the earth climate. The climate-related ecosystem benefit that forests afford include the maintenance of elevated soil moisture and surface air humidity, sunlight penetration, weaker near-surface winds and the inhibition of anaerobic soil situation. The above all discussed benefits of forests are in question unless we control deforestation.

2. Water and soil resource loss and flooding
According to GirmaAssefa (2015), land degradation, particularly forest resource degradation affects soil structure and leads to the loss of soil nutrients through processes of water or wind erosion. The main causes of land degradation are inappropriate land use, mostly unsustainable agricultural practices, overgrazing and deforestation. These practices are most common in places where land, water, and other natural resources are underpriced. In addition, most people who do not have land owner ship right uses land to invest not in sustainable land management way; due to the need to meet their short-term economic desires.
Deforestation increases flooding mainly for two reasons. First, with a smaller ‘tree fountain’ effect, soils are more likely to be fully saturated with water. The ‘sponge’ fills up earlier in wet season, causing additional precipitation to run off and increasing flood risk. Second, deforestation often results in soil compaction unable to absorb rain. Locally, this causes a faster response of stream flows to rainfall and thus potential flash flooding (SumitChakravarty, 2015)
Girma (2015) also argued that, the rate and severity of soil erosion and land degradation somewhat depends on land use pattern. The problem of soil erosion starts with the elimination of land cover (natural vegetation) for different purposes. The relationship between land use and soils is two dimensional i.e. land use affects soils and in reverse soils affect land use. In the highlands of Ethiopia, annual topsoil loss due to erosion is over 1.5 billion tones, or 35 to 40 tons per hectare per annum (Tadesse2003). This causes a loss of 1.0-1.5 million tons of grain per annum in the country ibid
Due to the removal of part of the forest, the area cannot hold as much water that result on a drier climate. Water resources affected by deforestation include drinking water, fisheries and aquatic habitats, flood/drought control, waterways and dams affected by siltation, less appealing water related recreation, and damage to crops and irrigation systems from erosion and turbidity (Sumit Chakravarty, 2015).

3. Decreased biodiversity and habitat loss
Forest ecosystems play numerous roles at worldwide as well as local levels as provider of environmental services to nature in general, humans in particular, and as source of economically valued products (GirmaAssefa 2015). Forests especially natural forests are used for diverse ecological and economic purposes. They could protect local climate, regulates hydraulic cycle, used as wild life habitats and reduce runoff and soil erosion.
Forests mainly those in moist tropics are storehouses to the largest number of threatened species of any biome. According to SumitChakravarty (2015), tropical forests sustain about two thirds of all known species and contain 65 per cent of the world’s 10, 000 endangered species.
It is also assumed that numerous, but not yet scientifically described, species are presently being lost together with their tropical forest habitats. Consequently deforestation, fragmentation and degradation devastate the biodiversity as a whole and habitat for migratory species including the endangered ones, some of which have still to be catalogued. ibid
Some assessment indicate that a large and increasing number of forest ecosystems, populations and species are threatened globally or being lost due to the loss and degradation of forest habitats, and that this reduction of forest biodiversity will be aggravated by the effects of climate change (IUCN, 2010).
The loss of plant biodiversity may lead to the decline of ecosystem integrity and loss of plant genetic resources, which in turn result in obstacle of scientific advancement in agriculture and pharmaceutics. As SumitChakravarty (2015), cited on the publication of World Health Organization, about 80 per cent of the world’s population relies for primary health care to some extent on traditional medicine. The biodiversity loss and related large changes in forest cover could cause sudden, irreversible and harmful changes.
4. Social consequences
According to Girma (2015), the most immediate social impact of deforestation happens at local level with change or loss of forests that provide ecological service. Forests afford humans valuable service such as erosion prevention, food control, water management functions that are mainly important in the world’s poorest people who relying on natural resources for their own every day survival. They also argue that by destroying the forests peoples risk own quality of life, gamble with the stability of climate and local weather, and pressure on the survival of other species (ibid).
As Girma (2015) argued, the destruction of tree stocks would cause changes the ecology of rural areas, mainly carrying capacity of the soil loses of top soil, reduced erosion soil moisture content and greeter flooding adversely changes water tables, reduction in the recycling of soil nutrients are observed in many parts of Ethiopia.
According to SumitChakravarty (2015), deforestation in other words, is an expression of social injustice and the social consequences of deforestation are many, often with devastating long-term impacts. By destroying the forests society risk their own quality of life, gamble with the stability of climate and local weather, threaten the existence of other species and weaken the valuable services provided by biological diversity.
5. Economic losses
The tropical forests provide great economic contribution for the revenue of national economy. The destruction of forests, caused by unsustainable forest management may result on the decrease of national economy due to the reduction of forestry sector. Due to deforestation employment that could be derived from sustainable forest management could be also deteriorated.
2.2.7. Challenges and Opportunities of Forest Management in Ethiopia
Challenges
According to Wubalem Taesse(2012), there is no reliable information on the vegetation resources such as their spatial coverage, distribution, changes over time etc. Essential information is lacking or difficult to get because it is scattered and inconsistent ibid.
WubalemTadesse also suggested that, among the challenges of the sector, there is no national database, regular resource inventory and monitoring to provide reasonably good and up to date information for current management and future planning, strategy and policy formulations. Sometimes contradictory data are found in different reports. Most reports on Ethiopian forest resources lack clarity on how, when and who collected them.
But contrary to the study of Wubalem Tadesse, according to Abeje Eshete(2015), Several challenges were indicated during the different regional consultative meetings. These are:-
? lack of forestry extension services due to inadequate number of skilled manpower,
? Continued deforestation, forest degradation and biodiversity losses
? Weak governance of forest sector
? High levels of poverty in forested areas
? Low visibility of forestry in development strategies
? Inadequate information availability
? Increasing land use competition and insecure resource tenure by local people
? Lack of community mobilization
Opportunities
There are opportunities for the development of the forest sector. The Government of Ethiopia is committed to the sustainable management of forest resources through the green development path (Jacek P. Siry, 2003). To realize this goal, the government has formulated, enacted and started to implement a number of sectoral and cross-sectoral policies, strategies and laws in recent years to overcome the challenges and bringing about faster economic development while also responsibly managing forests and other environmental resources ibid.
According to Jacek P. Siry (2003), the following are opportunities of forest management.
? Forest conservation/preservation
? Reforestation/rehabilitation
? Improved forest management/reduced impact logging
? Commercial plantation and community forestry
? Biomass energy and fuel wood
? Urban forestry.
? Participatory forest management/PFM/
2.3.7 FOREST RESOURCE BASE OF ETHIOPIA
Ethiopia was rich in natural forests. A number of authors and national or sub-national inventory projects have carried out assessments and documented so many data on forest resources of Ethiopia. As historical sources indicate, close to 40 % of Ethiopia might have been covered by high forests as recently as the sixteenth centuryAmogneAsfaw(2013).
Another estimate put the original forest cover as a percentage of the total land area at 25 % compared with 48 % for the world. It also note that about 16 % of the land area was estimated to have been covered by high forests in the early 1950s, which declined to 3.6 % in the early 1980s and further declined to 2.7 % in 1989.
On the other hand, the recent data on forest resources of 2 GIS and Remote Sensing-Based Forest Resource, Ethiopia reported in FAO (2010) puts the country among the world with forest cover of 10–30 %. According to this report Ethiopia’s forest cover (FAO definition) is 12.2 million ha (11 %). It further indicated that the forest cover shows a decline from 15.11 million ha in 1990 to 12.2 million ha in 2010, during which 2.65 % of the forest cover was deforested.

In the recent forest proclamation (No. 542/2007), high forests, woodlands, bamboo forests are recognized as forests. Following the definition of FAO (2001), the vegetation of Ethiopia that may qualify as ‘forests’ is natural high forests, woodlands, plantations, and bamboo forests, with an estimated area of 30.8 % (35.13 million ha) MulatieMekonnen(2016).
If the shrub lands are added, the estimated cover is over 50 % (61.62 million ha). The vegetation of Ethiopia including forests comprises over 7,000 species out of which 1,150 are endemic to the country. It also serves the diverse fauna including 240 species of mammals and 845 species of birds, of which 22 species of mammals and 24 species of birds are endemic (MotumaTolera et al.,2015)
According to MattiElosyKarithi (2015), currently Ethiopia has 13 million hectares of forest. This forest cover in the country is under threat as a result of pressure from agricultural expansion and fuel wood production. To address this, the government issued a Forest Development, Conservation and Utilization Proclamation and this proclamation recognized the role of the stakeholders’ forest management as an important strategy for environmental protection ibib.
2.3.8 Present Status of Forest Laws in Ethiopia
The national or sub national policy framework on forests and their management intend to guide decision-making and provide a clear sense of direction over time. In the context of international commitments many countries have agreed to use national forest programs as a comprehensive framework in order to develop and implement their forest policies. The legal framework provides a key instrument in support of the national forest policy. Together the national policy and the legal framework related to forests constitute the basis for sustainable forest management (FAO, 2010).
Various Ethiopian governments have promulgated different forest laws with the view to protect the country’s forest resources. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive study that shows the practical application of forest laws. With respect to the forest cover in the country, there are conflicting reports from various sources (FDRE Ministry of Agriculture,2013).
The first ever formal national forest policy in Ethiopia was issued in 2007 (FDRE Proclamation No. 542/2007). This is still in force. Before that, policies related to forest resource management were vague, and could only be inferred from various related legal instruments, such as institutional mandates or other documents (Ahmid Said &MulugetaLemenih, 2013).
The Ethiopian forest policy proclamation No 94 of 1994 was repealed by Proclamation No 542 of 2007. The statements incorporated in the preamble of the new Proclamation have clearly shown the purposes of the law in protecting forest resources together with the ecological as well as economic functions of forests. (FDRE Ministry of Agriculture,2010).
The objective of the forest proclamation is stated as to meet the forest product demands of the society and increase the contribution of forest resources to the national economy through appropriate management’. This proclamation is meant to serve as an umbrella form of guidance, on the basis of which regional states will draw up their respective forest proclamations considering local socio-economic and resource realities. This is the result of the decentralized political administration system adopted in Ethiopia since the early 1990s that has given regional states the power of administering their natural resources, including forests, by developing their own policies and institutional arrangements ibid.

2.3.9. Underlying factors enabling deforestation and forest degradation at the regulatory and policy level
According to the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA, 2011), the following are underlying factors enabling deforestation and forest degradation at the regulatory and policy level.
?Unworkable regulatory approach to forestry due to lack of resources and inherent deficiency of regulations
?Insufficient / unclear user rights for forests create uncertainty for forest-dependent people and create “open access” mentality
?Lack of benefit sharing system, although already planned by policies
?Lack of empowerment of local communities, which sometimes lack ability to influence decisions on forests
?Lack of law enforcement due to the lack of a dedicated institution and insufficient regulatory infrastructure

CHAPTER THREE
INTRODUCTION
This chapter tried to describe research methods, approaches and designs in detail and highlights that the researcher used throughout the study and also justifies the choice through describing advantages of each approach and design taking into account of their practical applicability to the research.

3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Design
This study is conducted to assess the challenges and opportunities of forest resource management in Benshangul Gumuze Regional State, 2 selected Kebeles of Bullen woreda. In order to make the investigation valid and reliable both qualitative and quantitative approach is applied. The study is descriptive method of research. As widely accepted, this method of research is a fact finding study that involves satisfactory and precise interpretation of findings. Descriptive research describes certain present condition. Relatively, the method is appropriate to this study since it aims to describe the present condition of technical analysis
In the research design, sample survey is carried out at two kebeles. (Dobi kebele and Bullen 02 kebele). These two kebeles are purposely selected according to their exposure and their concern to the issue under investigation.

3.2 Sampling Techniques
In this case both probability and non-probability sampling is used. Under the probability sampling, since the populations of study area is somewhat heterogeneous, stratified and systematic random sampling is used to select respondents to be included in the sample. Purposive sampling technique is used for bureaucrat informants and key informants who are the representatives of forestry sector. The selection is done based on the position they hold in their respective sectors.

3.2.1 Sampling Size
If you know nothing about your population at all, using Slovin formula is appropriate to figure out sample size you need to take (search from: http://www.statisticshowto.com/how-to-use-slovins-formula/). Because of this the researcher used this formula to figure out the sample size.
Here is the formula
n=N/1+N*e2 (Slovin, 1960)
Whereas n=Sample Size
N=Total Population
e=Margin of Error
Accordingly, from the 316 total household 177 participants were selected as a sample based on the following formula at 95 % confidence level and 5% margin of error.
Hence: n=316/1+316*5%2
n=316/1+316*0.052
n=316/1+316*0.0025
n=316/1+0.79
n=316/1.79=176.536
n=177
With the total of 177 sample size, 46 participants were selected by purposive sampling in the total of 62 public sector workers. Purposive sampling technique is used for bureaucrats and the key informants who are the representative in the three selected forestry sectors. The selection is done based on the position they hold in their respective sectors.
3.3 . Data Gathering Tools
Questionnaires, interviews, and observation data collection tools is employed to carry out the investigation. It contains both closed and open ended questions. Questionnaires were distributed for household and employees. The interviews are conducted for concerned top officials who have direct relation with the issue under investigation. Secondary data is also gathered from the relevant books, internet searches, official document, records and reports.
3.4 Data source/Type of Data/
The data types used in the study is both primary and secondary sources. Multiple sources of data are used for the rationale of studying different dimension of the objectives of investigation. The study is therefore, based on primary data generated from questionnaires distributed for concerned bodies and interviews as well as the secondary data obtained from official documents recorded, previously conducted studies, reports, internet searches and other documents.
3.5 Methods of Data Analysis and Presentation
To arrive at the tabulations and analysis, the researcher used a descriptive analysis as a tool in order to arrive on a research presentation.
The data that the researcher gathered from the respondents is analyzed and discussed by using tabulations that is in the form of tables, percentages, and finally presented with verbal explanation.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
In this chapter the finding generally focuses on the three major parts. The first part discuses characteristics of the sample respondents of the study and the analysis of the major variables based on the responses obtained from, bureaucrats of three selected government organization which are related with forestry sector, the second part deals with the analysis of major variables on the responses obtained from, the household and the third part deals with the analysis of major variables based on the responses obtained from the interview of top managers of the three selected government organizations. In this part, the study findings are also discussed in relation to the previous relevant literature to give inferences.
4.1. Background Information of the Respondents
As indicate in the previous chapter, respondent are households of the two selected kebeles in Bullen woreda/Dobi kebele and Bullen 02 kebele/ and bureaucrats in three selected government organization namely, Agriculture and rural development, Environment and Forest conservation, Culture and Tourism office. There are also structured interview questionnaire respondents who are the managers in the forestry organization.
From the general characteristics of the total respondent of 177, in which 131 are household respondent and 46 are bureaucrat respondent that are illustrated in the following table. As shown below, the demographic indicate respondent’s gender, age and education level.
Table 1: demographic character of the respondents
No Respondents Item Category Frequency Percent
1 Household respondents Gender
Male 102 77.9
Female 29 22.1
Total 131 100.0
Age 26-30 6 4.6
31-35 17 13.0
36-40 33 25.2
41-45 60 45.8
>46 15 11.5
Total 131 100.0
Education level certificate 2 1.5
college diploma 15 11.5
BA/BSc degree 23 17.6
MA/MSc degree 1 .8
other 90 68.7
Total 131 100.0
2 Bureaucrat respondents Gender Male 4 8.7
Female 19 41.3
Total 17 37.0
Age 26-30 4 8.7
31-35 2 4.3
36-40 46 100.0
41-45 4 8.7
>46 19 41.3
Total 17 37.0
Education level certificate – –
college diploma 13 28.3
BA/BSc degree 33 71.7
MA/MSc degree – –
Total 46 100.0

Source: field survey
Gender
As shown in number one of table 1, from the total of 131 household respondents, 102(77.9%) are male and 29(22.1%) are female. This indicates that the participation of female in forest management issue and decision making is still low. So it may need awareness creation and training for the community of this study area to promote female participation and decision making on forest management activities.
As shown in number two of table 1, from the total of 46 bureaucrat respondents, 67.4% (31) respondents are male and 32.6%(15) respondents are female. In this data the number of male is two times greater than the number of female working in three selected organization of forestry sector. We can understand that the contribution and participation of female in forestry organization is not proportional with men.
Age
As shown in table 1 above, from the age of the total of 131 household respondents, the greatest respondents in number is the age between41-45 (45.8%, 60 respondents) and the list respondents in number is the age between26-30(4.6%, 6 respondents).
In addition to the age of household respondent, the age of bureaucrat respondents are also shown in number two of table 1. From the total respondents, the greatest respondents in number is the age between31-35(41.3%, 19 respondents) and the list respondents in number is the age >46(4.3%, 2 respondents).
Education
As shown in number one of table 1 above, from the total of 131 household respondents, 1.5 %( 2 respondents are certificate), 11.5 %( 15 respondents are college diploma), 17.6 %( 23 respondents are BA/BSc degree), 0.8(1 respondent is MA/MSc degree) and 68.7(90 respondents are other education level). This indicates that the greatest number of respondents in education level of respondents is in “other” education level (elementary, high school and basic education). And the list number of respondent is the education level is MA/MSc degree which is 0.8% or 1 respondent. The education level of certificate is 1.5% or 2 respondents which is the second list in number and almost the same with list. With this information, we can understand that, most of the households living in these two kebeles are in the education level of elementary, high school, and basic education. This is not to mean they are attending elementary, high school and basic education, they dropped earlier.
As also shown in number two of table 1, from the total of 46 bureaucrat respondents, 28.3% or 13 respondents are collage diploma) and 71.7 % or 33 respondents are BA/BSc degree). This indicates that the greatest number of respondents in education level is BA/BSc degree which is 71.7% or 33 respondents who are working in the three selected organization of forestry sector. In this data one can that, the domination of forestry sector by BA/BSc degree rather than certificate is opportunity for forest management in case of man power.
4.2. Presentation and Analysis of Data Obtained From Questionnaires of bureaucrats in the three selected forestry sector
In this section, questionnaires were sent to 46 bureaucrats. All open and close ended questions were filled and returned. A 100% response rate was achieved. The finding and analysis focuses on, awareness and training, forest management activities and challenges, Assistance from NGOs and donors, cause of deforestation, effects of deforestation, challenges of forest management, and opportunities of forest management in detail. The data gathered by close ended and open ended questionnaire is analyzed.
Table: 2. Awareness and training
No Item
Response Frequency Percent
1 Have you participated in any training programs or attended conferences or briefing sessions provided by any agencies/organizations concerning about forest management? Yes 36 78.3
No 10 21.7
Total 46 100.0
2 Would you like to receive information on forest management awareness training events Yes 37 80.4
No 9 19.6
Total 46 100.0

In item one of table 2 above, the total of all 46 respondents were asked to indicate whether they participated in any training programs or attended conferences or briefing sessions provided by any agencies/organizations concerning forest management. As shown in Table 2, 78.3% (36) respondents were participated on training were as the rest 21.7% (10) respondents were not participated on the training. In addition to this, the data gathered from the key informants and also reports on training and conferences suggested that, bureaucrats working in forestry sectors attended training and conferences; but it is not sufficient and didn’t included all the forestry sector bureaucrats. Representatives in the forestry sector have also a problem of knowledge gap on forest management system.
This shows that, some of the bureaucrats and representatives in the forestry sector are in need of training program or conferences to update themselves on the area of forest management systems.

In item two of table 2 above, respondents were also asked to state whether they would like to receive information on forest management awareness training events or not. Majority of the respondents 80.4% (37) responded as ”yes”. Whereas the least and the rest respondents 19.6% (9) responded as ”No”. As the key informants of interview questioner also suggested that, lack of awareness in the bureaucrats of forestry sector is challenge to forest management. This lack of awareness is due to lack of sufficient and inclusive training for workers in forestry sector.

Table 3: Forest management activities and challenges
No Item
Response Frequency Percent
1 Do you have any traditional forest management practices? Yes – –
No 46 100.0
Total 46 100
2 Is there forest management activities done in your woreda?
Yes 46 100.0
No – –
I don’t know – –
Total 46 100.0
3 Are there challenges of forest management in your woreda? Yes 46 100.0
No – –
I don’t know – –
Total 46 100.0
4 Does your organization identify degraded areas for rehabilitation or restoration projects or activities? Yes 25 54.3
No 21 45.7
Total 46 100.0
5 Is there a conflict between the management and local community? Yes 21 45.7
No 25 54.3
Total 46 100.0

In item 1 of table 3 above, we can see that all 46 (100%) of the respondents answered ‘No’ and none of the respondents answered ‘yes’. The data gathered from field observation and documents of woreda level report also show that there is no traditional forest management system in the locality rather there is a bad tradition of destroying forests even without any reason. Besides to legally known rules and regulations of forest management, traditional practices that initiate forest management system should be identified and promoted in order to better local community participation in forestry activities.
In item 2 of table 3 above, respondents were also asked to state whether forest management activities were done in Bullen woreda or not.
All the respondents 100% (46) responded as there is forest management activities don in Bullen woreda. The respondents on the open ended question with the same issue suggested some of the forest management activites don in the study area. Among them, participatory forest management system/PFM/, planting trees in some degraded areas and management of basins, protecting selected mountain area forests and hillside forests of all kebeles, protecting forests from wild fire and from grazing specially areas of PFM are some forest management activities don in the woreda. According to the above data, one can understand that there are some initiating practices and opportunities of forest management in the woreda. This is not to mean that the forest management activity done is enough; rather there are problems on forest management as the data gathered by open ended and structured interview questionnaire that is analyzed in the research part of challenges of forest management.
In item 3 of table 3 above, respondents were asked to state whether there is challenges of forest management or not in Bullen woreda. All the respondents 100% (46) responded as there are challenges of forest management. In addition to the responses of close ended questionnaire, the open ended questionnaire of the bureaucrats and the key informant response on the structured interview question also suggest that, there are so many challenges of forest management in the study area; among the challenges, expansion of farming land, lack of awareness, shifting cultivation, illegal logging, wild fire, and the local peoples bad habit of destroying forests even without any reason.
In item 4 of table 3 above, respondents were also asked whether their organization identified degraded area for rehabilitation or restoration projects or not. Among 46 respondents 54.3% (25) answered ‘yes’ and the rest 45.7% (21) respondents answered ‘no’. Besides to the bureaucrats response, according to the data from key informants response and eye witness account of the researcher there are some areas that are identified for rehabilitation and restoration project in the woreda at the land escape level. But the identified areas are not that much satisfactory and they are mostly found in the participatory forest management area.
In item 5 of table 3 above, 46 respondents were asked to state whether conflict happened between the management and local community. The majority of the respondents 54.3% (25) responded as the ”no”. Whereas the rest respondent 45.7% (21) responded as there is conflict between the management and local community. Response from key informants and woreda level documented report also shows that there is some conflicts with local community. According to the data, there are communities who challenge forest management system in the study area. These challenges are be due to lack of awareness on forest management and further use of forest.
In addition to lack of awareness, challenging communities are communities who are dependent on forest resources for their house hold income.
To solve this conflict between forest management bodies and local communities, concerned bodies of forest management should work on awareness creation and alternative source of household income for those who are dependent on forest resources.
Table: 4. Assistance from NGOs and Donors
No Item
Response Frequency Percent
1 Have you ever sought any assistance from any non-government and donors in your Woreda in relation to forest management? Yes – –
No 46 100.0
I don’t know – –
Total 46 46
In table 4 above, 46 respondents were asked to state whether they sought any assistance from any non-government and donors in relation to forest management.
All the respondents 100% (46) responded as, there is no assistance from any non-government and donors in relation to forest management. As the data gathered from key informants and document analysis show that there is no non-government and donors in relation to forest management in the study area.
As we know non government organizations are supporting so many institutions in our country. There are also so many non-government organizations that work on environmental issues. Only the hand of government is not enough in financial and material support to facilitate forest management activity. There for, concerned government organization should have to prepare project proposal and find supporting non-governmental and donors to work well on environment and forest management system.
Table: 5. Causes of Deforestation

No Item
Response Frequency Percent
1 What is the current extent of agriculture expansion? a. Low 2 4.3
b. Medium 7 15.2
c. High 37 80.4
d. not cause – –
Total 46 100.0
2 What is the current extent of wild fire? a. Low 5 10.9
b. Medium 12 26.1
c. High 29 63.0
d. not cause – –
Total 46 100.0

3 What is the current extent of fire wood? a. Low 34 73.9
b. Medium 12 26.1
c. High – –
d. not cause – –
Total 46 100.0
4 What is the current extent of house construction? a. Low 23 50.0
b. Medium 16 34.8
c. High 7 15.2
d. not cause – –
Total 46 100.0
5 What is the current extent of charcoal making? a. Low 25 54.3
b. Medium 6 13.0
c. High – –
d. not cause 15 32.6
Total 46 100.0
6 What is the current extent of illegal logging? a. Low 36 78.3
b. Medium 10 21.7
c. High – –
d. not cause – –
Total 46 100.0

In item 1 of table 5 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of cause of deforestation. Among causes of deforestation agricultural expansion is rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale; high, medium, low, and not cause. According to their response, 80.4% (37) rated high, 15.2% (7) rated medium, 4.3% (20) rated low and none of the respondents responded agriculture expansion as not cause.

According to the above data, the highest number of the respondent 80.4% (37) rated high and the respondents of the list in number 4.3% (2) rated low. Besides to the response of Bureaucrats questionnaire, the data gathered from the key informants and field observation by the researcher also show that, even though there is accessibility of institutional and legal framework for the management of forest, there is demand for forest land for agriculture due to improper use of the previous land and applying shifting cultivation. In addition to this, there are also large commercial investments which cause deforestation. As the key informants said, most commercial investments are took place with improper Environmental Impact Assessment/EIA/. Due to this and lack of proper communication between investment sector and forestry sector, forests are destroyed by large commercial investments. This indicates that, agricultural expansion is a major cause for deforestation in Bullen woreda. So before giving lands to commercial investment, Environmental Impact Assessment /EIA/ should be done. And also investment sector and forestry sector should have to make a better communication to work together for planting trees to substitute the destroyed forests due to investment.

In item 2 of table 5 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of cause of deforestation. Among causes of deforestation wild fire is rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale; ”high”, ”medium”, ”low”, and ”not cause”. According to their response, 63% (29) rated high, 26.1% (12) rated medium, 10.9% (5) rated low and none of the respondents responded agriculture expansion as not cause.
According to the above data, the highest number of the respondent rated high and the respondents of the list in number rated low. In addition to this the data from field observation and key informants response also indicate that wild fire is highly causing deforestation as the key informant suggested, annually wild fire happens in the study area and destroys so forests. This wild fire is caused by those peoples who are illegally uses forest resources. There are also some farmers who think that, after firing the forest annually they will get better grazing land for their livestock.

In item 3 of table 5 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of cause of deforestation. Among causes of deforestation fire wood is rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale. According to their response, 26.1% (12) rated medium, 73.9% (34) rated low and none of the respondents responded ‘high’, and not ’cause’.
According to the above data, majority of the respondent rated ‘low’ and the list in number rated ‘medium’. As the researcher gathered from key informants and open ended question on the same issue, the society uses old trees and the dried one for fire wood. So they said that, the negative contribution of fire wood for deforestation is low in the study area.

In item 4 of table 5 above, respondents were also asked to rate the current extent of cause of deforestation. Among causes of deforestation house construction is rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale. According to their response, 15.2% (7) rated ‘high’, 34.8% (16) rated medium, 50% (23) rated low and none of the respondents responded ‘not cause’. In addition to these close ended questionnaire response, the data gathered from the response of open ended questionnaire and key informants show that, house construction is not a major cause of deforestation in the study area. As the data gathered by open ended question on the same issue also shows, the local communities construct their house not annually, rather with the average of eight or nine year’s gap.
In item 5 of table 5 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of cause of deforestation. Among causes of deforestation charcoal making was rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale. According to their response, 13% (6) rated ‘medium’, 54.3% (25) rated ‘low’ and 32.6% (15) rated not ’cause’
As the key informants response and documents of woreda level report also show that the rate of charcoal making in the study area is not considered as a cause of deforestation. But in a low rate there is illegal charcoal making in the study area. As the key informants also pointed out on the same issue, due to the legal restriction of using forests for charcoal, the community uses old trees and the dried one for charcoal making. So the negative contribution of charcoal for deforestation is low in the study area.
In item 6 of table 5 above, respondents were asked to rate the current extent of cause of deforestation. Among causes of deforestation illegal logging is rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale. According to their response, 21.7% (10) rated medium, 78.3% (36) rated low and none of the respondents responded ‘high’, and not ’cause’.
As the data gathered by open ended question also suggests that, illegal logging is not as such a major cause of deforestation in the study area. They said that legal frame work on protection of forest from illegal loggers is better. There is taking of legal actions on the illegal loggers of forest resource. Due to legal punishment, the numbers of illegal loggers are decreasing time to time. As the key informants response and open ended questionnaire result show that, Most of the time those illegal loggers are a society who cuts a tree for timber. The government allowed only the old trees for timber with permeation and the tree that the individual planted in their own land or garden.
Table: 6. Effects of Deforestation
No Item
Response Frequency Percent
1 What is the current extent of temperature increase? a. Low – –
b. Medium 4 8.7
c. High 42 91.3
d. not effect – –
Total 46 100.0
2 What is the current extent of increase in land erosion? a. Low 4 8.7
b. Medium 15 32.6
c. High 27 58.7
d. not effect – –
Total 46 100.0
3 What is the current extent of decrease in kind and number of wild life? a. Low 4 8.7
b. Medium 15 32.6
c. High 27 58.7
d. not effect – –
Total 46 100.0
4 What is the current extent of decrease in number of river and amount of water? a. Low 3 6.5
b. Medium 29 63.0
c. High 14 30.4
d. not effect
Total 46 100.0

In item 1 of table 6 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of effect of deforestation. Among effects of deforestation temperature increase is rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale; ‘high’, ‘medium’, ‘low’, and ‘not effect’. According to their response, 91.3% (42) rated ‘high’ 8.7% (4) rated medium, and none of the respondents responded ‘low’, and ‘not cause’. The key informants
According to the above data, the highest number of the respondent 91.3% (42) rated ‘high’. As a majority response rewarded that and the key informant’s suggestions, there is high temperature increase due to deforestation. This is also a global phenomena occurring now a day.
In item 2 of table 6 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of effect of deforestation. Among effects of deforestation increase in land erosion was rated by the respondents with the given four rating. According to their response, 58.7 (27) rated ‘high’, and 8.7% (4) rated ‘low’.
As the majority response indicates that, due to deforestation land erosion is highly occurring in the study area. As the data gathered by open ended question, mountain area and hill side land is mostly exposed for erosion due to high grazing on it. And also during agriculture thy cleared tree which protects land from erosion by its root. In addition to clearing the tree, some farmers also has no the knowledge of contour farming. These all mentioned problem above led to high extent of land erosion in Bullen woreda.
In item 3 of table 6 above, 46 respondents were also asked to rate the current extent of effect of deforestation. Among effects of deforestation, decrease in kind and number of wild life is rated by the respondents with the given rating scale. According to their response, 84.8% (39) rated ‘high’ 15.2% (7) rated medium, and none of the respondents responded ‘low’, and ‘not cause’. In addition to the response of bureaucrats, key informants also suggested that, the number and kind of wild life is highly decreased due to deforestation.
In item 4 of table 6 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of effect of deforestation. Among effects of deforestation, decrease in number of rivers and amount of water was rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale; ‘high’, ‘medium’, ‘low’, and ‘not effect’. According to their response, 30.4 (14) rated ‘high’, 63% (29) rated ‘medium’ and 6.5% (3) rated ‘low’
According to the above data, the highest number of the respondent 63% (29) rated ‘medium’. As the majority respondent said due to deforestation, the extent and rate of decrease in number and amount is medium.
Table: 7. Challenges of Forest management
No Item
Response Frequency Percent
1 what is the current extent of lack of awareness a. Low 20 43.5
b. Medium 12 26.1
c. High 14 30.4
d. not challenge – –
Total 46 100.0
2 what is the current extent of lack of government support a. Low 24 52.2
b. Medium 15 32.6
c. High 7 15.2
d. not challenge – –
Total 46 100.0
3 What is the current extent of lack of clear rule and regulation on forest management? a. Low 34 73.9
b. Medium 9 19.6
c. High 3 6.5
d. not challenge – –
Total 46 100.0
4 What is the current extent of lack of community mobilization? a. Low 5 10.9
b. Medium 10 21.7
c. High 31 67.4
d. not challenge – –
Total 46 100.0
In item 1 of table 7 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of challenge of forest management. Among the challenges of forest management lack of awareness was rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale; ‘high’, ‘medium’, ‘low’, and ‘not challenge’. According to their response, 30.4(14) rated ‘high’, 26.1% (12) rated ‘medium’ and 43.5% (20) rated ‘low’. Besides to the response of close ended questionnaire, the data gathered by open ended and from the key informants suggests that, among the challenges of forest management lack of awareness is taken as a problem in the study area. As the majority response indicates that, the extent and rate of lack of awareness for forest management is low. On the other hand this is also to mean, in some extent there is awareness on forest management but the major problem is during practice and implementation as the key informants also pointed out.
In item 2 of table 7 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of challenge of forest management. Among the challenges of forest management lack of government support was rated by the respondents. According to their response, 15.2% (7) rated ‘high’, 32.6% (15) rated ‘medium’ 52.2% (24) rated ‘low’ and none of the respondent rated ‘not challenge’. The key informants also suggested that lack of government support is not taken as a major challenge of forest management.
According to the above data, the highest number of the respondent rated ‘low’ and also key informants suggested that lack of government support is not a major challenge of forest management.

In item 3 of table 7 above, 46 respondents were also asked to rate the current extent of challenge of forest management. Among the challenges of forest management, lack of clear rule and regulation on forest management was rated by the respondents with the given rating scale. According to their response, 6.5% (3) rated ‘high’, 19.6% (9) rated ‘medium’ 73.9% (34) rated ‘low’ and none of the respondent rated ‘not challenge’. In addition to the bureaucrat’s response to the questionnaire, as the data gathered from key informants, suggest that, lack clear rule and regulation is not taken as a major cause of forest management. The key informants said that, even though there is a limitation on rule and regulation, it is not as such major problem in the study area.
According to the above data, the majority response indicates that, the extent and rate of lack of clear rule and regulation for challenging forest management is low. On the other hand this is also to mean lack of clear rule and regulation is not taken as a major challenge for forest management in the study area.
In item 4 of table 7 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of challenge of forest management. Among the challenges of forest management, lack of community mobilization was rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale; ‘high’, ‘medium’, ‘low’, and ‘not challenge’. According to their response, 67.4% (31) rated ‘high’, 21.7% (10) rated ‘medium’ 10.9% (5) rated ‘low’ and none of the respondent rated ‘not challenge’. Besides to this, the key informants also said that, in Bullen woreda, lack of community mobilization is highly challenging forest management. As their suggested that, in the study area, community mobilization on the area of forest management is not done well. This lack of community mobilization resulted on the less participation of community in the forest management system.
According to the above data, one can understand that, lack of community mobilization is taken as a major challenge of forest management in the study area.
Table: 8. Opportunities of Forest management
No Item
Response Frequency Percent
1 What is the current extent of planting tree? a. Low 35 76.1
b. Medium 9 19.6
c. High 2 4.3
d. not opportunity – –
Total 46 100.0
2 What is the current extent of forest conservation? a. Low 34 73.9
b. Medium 5 10.9
c. High 7 15.2
d. not opportunity – –
Total 46 100.0
3 What is the current extent of protecting forest from wild fire? a. Low 38 82.6
b. Medium 8 17.4
c. High – –
d. not opportunity – –
Total 46 100.0
4 What is the current extent of protecting forest from illegal loggers? a. Low 32 69.6
b. Medium 14 30.4
c. High – –
d. not opportunity – –
Total 46 100.0
5 what is the current extent of decision making on forest management a. Low 10 21.7
b. Medium 20 43.5
c. High 16 34.8
d. not opportunity – –
Total 46 100.0
6 What is the current extent of forest development activities? a. Low 42 91.3
b. Medium 4 8.7
c. High – –
d. not opportunity – –
Total 46 100.0
In item 1 of table 8 above, 46 respondents were asked to rate the current extent of opportunities of forest management. Among opportunities of forest management, extent of planting tree was rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale; ‘high’, ‘medium’, ‘low’, and ‘not opportunities’. According to their response, 4.3 (2) rated ‘high’, 19.6% (9) rated ‘medium’ and 76.1% (35) rated ‘low’. In addition to the bureaucrat’s response, data from field observation and the key informant’s respons on the opportunities of forest management suggested out that, the implementation of planting tree in Bullen woreda is not satisfactory; because it is taken place in Participatory Forest Management/PFM/ areas which are found only in the three kebeles. According to the above data, even though planting of tree is taken as opportunity of forest management in the study area, the majority response indicates that, the extent and rate of planting tree is low.
In item 2 of table 8 above, respondents were asked to rate the current extent of opportunities of forest management. Among opportunities of forest management, extent of forest conservation was rated by the respondents with the given rating scale. According to their response, 15 (7) rated ‘high’, 10.9% (5) rated ‘medium’ and 73.9% (34) rated ‘low’. The data from field observation also indicate that, forests are damaged by wild fire due to low conservation activity. The key informants also suggested that, there is annual wild fire that destroys so many forest areas due to lack of proper conservation and protection. In the above finding one can understand that forest conservation activity in the study area is low.

In item 3 of table 8 above, respondents were asked to rate the current extent of opportunities of forest management. Among opportunities of forest management, extent of protecting forest from wild fire was rated by the respondents with the given rating scale.
According to their response, 17.4 (8) rated ‘medium’, 82.6% (38) rated ‘low’ and none of the respondents rated ‘high’ and ‘not opportunity’. This finding is somewhat the same with the above item 3 finding. As the field observation and key in formants suggested out, wild fire is highly destroying forest resource in the study area. So the finding shows that, the implementation of protecting forest from wild fire is low in the study area.
In item 4 of table 8 above, respondents were asked to rate the current extent of opportunities of forest management. Among opportunities of forest management, extent of protecting forest from illegal logging was rated by the respondents with the given rating scale. According to the response, 30.4 (14) rated ‘medium’, 69.6% (32) rated ‘low’ and non of the respondents rated ‘high’, and ‘not opportunities’
According to the above data, the highest number of the respondent 69.6% (35) rated ‘low’. This indicates that, even though, protecting of forest from illegal loggers is taken as opportunities, the extent and rate is low in the study area as the majority respondent said.
In item 5 of table 8 above, respondents were asked to rate the current extent of opportunities of forest management. Among opportunities of forest management, extent of decision making on forest management was rated by the respondents with the given four rating scale; ‘high’, ‘medium’, ‘low’, and ‘not opportunities’. According to their response, 34.8 (16) rated ‘high’, 43.5% (20) rated ‘medium’ and 21.7% (10) rated ‘low’.
According to the above data, the highest number of the respondent 43.5% (20) rated ‘medium’. In the above data one can understand that, decision making on the issue of forest management is not low or high; but somewhat medium in the study area.
In item 6 of table 8 above, respondents were also asked to rate the current extent of opportunities of forest management. Among opportunities of forest management, extent of forest development activities was rated by the respondents with the given rating scale. According to the response, 8.7 (4) rated ‘medium’, 91.3% (42) rated ‘low’ and none of the respondents rated ‘high’, and ‘not opportunities’. In addition to the above response, the data gathered from field observation and key informants suggested that, forest development activities are done only in the area of Participatory Forest Management/PFM/ which is only found in the three kebeles namely Dobi kebele/Zoni PFM, which covers 1336 hectare/, Bullen 02 Kebele/Duchin PFM, which covers 673.069 hectare/ and Baruda kebele/Kuzkuri PFM, which covers 678.5 hectare/.
As the finding shows that, Even though we considered the above activities as opportunities of forest management, the development activity done is not as such satisfactory in the study area.
4.3. Presentation and Analysis of Data Obtained From Questionnaires of Household Respondents
In this section, six questionnaires were sent to 131 household respondents. All open and close ended questions were filled and returned. A 100% response rate was achieved. The data gathered by close ended and open ended questionnaire is analyzed in this section. The following three tables indicate the finding and the analysis of the data.
Table: 9. Density of forest change and awareness of local community
No Item
Response Frequency Percent
1 Has the density of forest land in your locality changed in the past ten years? a. Decreased 131 100.0
b. Same – –
c. Increased – –
d. I don’t know – –
Total 131 100.0
2 Have you participated in any training programs or attended conferences or briefing sessions provided by any agencies/organizations concerning about forest management? a. Yes 15 11.5
b. No 116 88.5
Total 131 100.0

Item one of table 9 above shows the density of forest in Bullen woreda in past ten years. All 131 household respondents were given the choice, ‘Increase’, ‘Same’, Decrease’, and ‘don’t know’ In this choice 100 % (131) respondents said ‘decreased’. In addition to the household response, woreda level report also shows that the density of forest is decreasing annually. This is clear that in the study area, forest is annually cleared. This leads forest resource to serious treat in Bullen woreda. The government on forestry sector with stakeholders should have to consider this threatening of forest resources and promote rehabilitation program to overcome the problems.
In item two of table 9 above, 131 respondents were also asked to indicate whether they participated in any training programs or attended conferences or briefing sessions provided by any agencies/organizations concerning forest management. As shown in the table, 88.5% (116) respondents were not participated on training were as the low in number 11.5% (15) respondents only participated on the training.
This indicates that majority of the community in the study area lacks awareness on forest management. On the other hand this lack of awareness led to the increase of deforestation and become challenge for forest management.
Table: 10. Forest Management Practices
No Item
Response Frequency Percent
1 Is there a traditional forest management practices in your locality? a. Yes – –
b. No 131 100.0
c. I don’t know – –
Total 131 100.0
2 Does your kebele identify degraded areas for rehabilitation or restoration projects or activities? a. Yes 17 13.0
b. No 114 87.0
Total 131 100.0

In item one of table 10 above, we can see that all 131 (100%) of the respondents answered ‘No’ and none of the respondents answered ‘yes’. In addition to the household respondents, the data gathered from bureaucrats also show that there is no traditional forest management system in the study area.
As to strengthen forest management system, traditional practices which promote community participation in forestry sector should have to be initiated.
In item two of table 10 above, 131 respondents was also asked whether their kebele identified degraded area for rehabilitation or restoration projects or not. Among 131 respondents 13% (17) answered ‘yes’ and the rest 87% (114) respondents answered ‘no’. The data gathered from key informants also show that the identification of degraded area and rehabilitation project done in the study area is not satisfactory. In this data one can understand that, the concerned forestry sector did not work well on identification and rehabilitation project on degraded area.
Table: 11. Forest Management and Local Community
No Item
Response Frequency Percent
1 Is there a conflict between the management and local community? a. Yes 47 35.9
b. No 84 64.1
Total 131 100.0
2 In your view can forest management itself be a challenge for local people with relation to income? a. Yes 26 19.8
b. No 105 80.2
Total 131 100.0

In item 1 of table 11 above, 131 respondents were asked to state whether conflict happened between the management and local community. The majority of the respondents 64.1% (84) responded as the no conflict happened between the management and the local community, whereas the rest respondent 35.9% (47) responded as there is conflict between the management and local community. As the key informants also responded, there are some conflicts between the forest management and local community. The conflict is raised due to the restriction of local communities from using the forest resources illegally. For example Participatory Forest Management/PFM/ area which are now in a protection against destruction are previously in use by local people without any restriction. Due to this, some local peoples are in confusion with the protection and conservation of that forest area. According to the above data, one can understand that there are communities who challenge forest management bodies in the study area. This challenging community is due to lack of awareness on the objective of forest management. In addition to lack of awareness, these challenging communities are dependent on forest resources for their household income.
To solve this conflict between forest management bodies and local communities, concerned bodies of forest management should work on awareness creation and alternative source of household income for those who are dependent on forest resources.
In item 2 of table 11 above, 131, respondents were also asked whether forest management itself can be the challenges for local people with in relation to income or not, Based on the responses presented above, 26(19.8%) of the respondent answered ‘yes’ whereas the rest 105(80.2%) respondent answered ‘No’.
However, 105(80.2%) said forest management itself can’t be challenge for local people with in relation to income, the 26(19.8%) who answered ‘Yes’ are the respondent who lacks awareness towards forest management and the further benefit of forest.
On the other hand one can also understand that, the concerned forestry sector did not work well on awareness creation. Those who answered ‘yes’ may get their household income from forest. Due to their restriction from forest, their income may decrease. Alternative source of income for the local community who get their household consumption should be considered during forest management.
4.4. Presentation and Analysis of date obtained from Interviews of representatives of an organization working in three selected forestry sector
The researcher also prepared six structured interview question for representatives working in the organization of forest resource management sector.
From the sex raised structured question, the first question says ”Do you think that there are opportunities of forest management in Bullen woreda? (Yes/ no). If yes what are those opportunities? Please explain”.
The entire respondent said ”yes” and they answered the explanation part of the question in different way. The researcher also gave the chance to the respondents to give their free idea on problems happening on forest sector and how to better the management system.
To avoid unnecessary reputation of responses, the researcher divided the 8 respondents in to two groups depending on the similarity of their response. Accordingly, five respondents were grouped in 1st and three respondents in 2nd group.
The first five respondents suggested that, there are opportunities of forest management in their woreda. According to their response, after the starting of participatory forest management/PFM/ in 2004, forests are recovering. This PFM is not only protecting forests but also wild life from hunting. The respondents also pointed out that, Protecting of hillside and mountain area forest is the other opportunity. Even though it is not strong like PFM, there is management and protection of hillside and mountain area forests in each kebele found in the woreda. In addition to these there is monitoring of hunting wild life and protection of forest from wild fire especially on PFM area in the three kebele. The second three respondents suggested that communities are participating in forest management especially in PFM. Illegal loggers are now decreasing due to the strength of legal framework on forest management and the specification of grazing land for farmers found in the three kebeles in which PFM is found/Dobi kebele, Baruda kebele and Bullen 02 kebele/. There is a practice of soil protection and planting tree on the degraded land especially in the PFM and forest is recovering.
The second question says ”are there challenges of forest management in Bullen Woreda? Yes/No; if your answer is yes, what are those challenges?”
Like in the first question, all the respondents said ”yes” and they gave their different suggestions for the explanation part of the question. To avoid the reputation of ideas the researcher grouped the response of eight interview in to two based on the similarity of the information. The first group is the response of six interviewees and the second is the response of two respondents. As the first group suggested that there are many challenges of forest management in Bullen woreda. Among the challenges expansion of farming land, grazing of forest area, inappropriate use of land and shifting cultivation to find fertile soil, lack of awareness because of insufficient training on forest management and sustainable use, weakness of institutional and legal framework on decision making of forest management, weak coordination with stockholders. The second group which contains the response of two interviewees suggests that in bullen woreda there are no NGOs and donors that work on forest resource. As we know forest management and conservation needs huge capital. But the only budget for forest management is from government, which is not satisfactory to address all rehabilitation, conservation and to maintain forest resources.
There is also lack of mutual understanding on planning of forest management and responsibility holding. For example as one of the respondent said, Agriculture and Rural Development office plan to manage and conserve wild animals in the forest and on the other hand Environment and Forest Conservation office plans to manage and conserve tree. In this case, plan and implementation is weak in both sides because of their consideration of each other on planning of forest management.
The third interview question says, “What are the causes and effects of deforestation?” The key informants rewarded their answer in separate way for causes and effects. To make précised and avoid reputation of information, the researcher analyzed the data of all key informants in understandable way. As the key informant’s suggestion, among the causes of deforestation, agricultural expansion, wild fire, live stock grazing and illegal logging are the major ones. The key informant also suggested that, among the effects of deforestation, land erosion, decrease in kind and number of wild life, decrease in number and amount of rivers are the major ones.
The researcher asked the fourth structured interview question for managers and the question is as follows; ”do you think that the implementation and practices of existing policy relating to forest management in Bullen woreda has a problem? Yes/ NO
If yes please explain”.
The entire respondent said ‘yes’ and their response of explanation part in the question is grouped in to two based on the similarity of the information they gave. The first group of five informant’s response suggests that, there is the problem with implementation and practice of existing policy relating to forest management. In the woreda, Environment and Forest Conservation office/EFCO/ and Agriculture and Rural Development office/ARDO/ are the major concerned organization of forest management. As a national objective, ARDO of Bullen woreda is working for agricultural development in rural areas. At the same time there is commercial investment which takes huge area that contains forests. Most of the time these forests are not considered as resource wile investing on the area. As the respondent’s opinion, the investor who cutes a tree for investment purpose should coordinate with ARDO and EFCO to replace the tree on other deforested area. Unless they do this, there is a problem of consideration of forests in policy implementation and practice will investing on forest area.
The second group informant’s response suggests that when come to implementation and practice of existing policy there is weakness on punishing illegal loggers of forests in Bullen woreda. There is also weak coordination between government body of forestry sector and community on exposing illegal actors on forests.

The fifth interview question says “Do you think that there are the gaps between the planning and actual practice of forest management in Bullen Woreda? Yes or No
If yes why please explain.”
The entire respondents said ”yes” and they explained the ”why” question in their opinion and almost the idea is the same. As they suggested that, there are gaps between the planning and actual practice of forest management in bullen woreda due to the following reasons.
? Not thinking of forest management as economic purpose and giving less attention
? Weak coordination among stockholders
? Financial capacity to implement the plan
? Lack of community mobilization
? Awareness problem of community
The sixth interview question says “In your view what do you think about how to strengthen the present policies of forest management?”
For this question the respondents gave their opinions as their thinking’s on forest management activities. But in order to precise the respondents opinion and to avoid reputation of information the researcher used the core idea of the respondents. As the respondents suggested out, the present policy can be strengthened by; ensuring community benefit on forest management , increasing government support and building human power on the sector, community mobilization, awareness creation for local community, considering of agricultural investment with forest resource degradation and mutual understanding on planning. Additionally the government should consider to some improvements on organizational structures of forest sector to better the working environment.
4.5. Discussion of Major Findings
In this part, the study findings are discussed in relation to the previous relevant literature to give inferences. The aim of the study is to investigate the major challenges and opportunities of forest management in Bullen woreda. Causes and effects of deforestation are also investigated as specific objective of the research. The numbers of respondents are 177 and all these respondents filled the questionnaires. The interview questionnaire was prepared and carried out for eight representatives of three selected government organization of forestry related sectors in Bullen woreda.
4.5.1. Causes of Forest Degradation in Bullen woreda
Scholars recognized different causes of forest degradation for example according to FAO (2012 ) degradation is usually caused by disturbances, which vary in terms of the extent, quality, origin and occurrence of the changing process can be natural and caused by fire, storm, drought, snow, pest, disease, atmospheric pollution, change in temperature. (Or it can be human induced for example illegal logging, excessive fuel wood collection, shifting cultivation, and overgrazing). There are also other indirect underlying reasons for degradation such as inappropriate policies, lack of clearly established tenure rights, institutional weaknesses, and lack of financial resources, corruption, and various economic, technological, cultural and demographic factors (DinkuShiferaw, 2017).
The findings from the questionnaires of bureaucrats working in the organization of three selected forestry sector in Bullen woreda revealed that, among causes of deforestation agricultural expansion is rated by the respondents. According to their response, majority rated “high”. In addition to the bureaucrat’s response, document analysis from woreda level report and data from field survey suggests that, agricultural expansion is highly contributing for forest degradation. Even though there is accessibility of institutional and legal framework for the management of forest resources, there is demand for forest land for agriculture due to improper use of the previous land and going to search of another which is called shifting cultivation in the remotes of the study area. In addition to this, there are also commercial investments which cause deforestation.
The second cause of deforestation is wild fire, which is rated by the Bureaucrat respondents. According to the response, majority of the respondents rated “high”. In addition to the response of the bureaucrats, the data from field survey by the researcher and the data from key informants also suggested that, wild fire is highly contributing for forest degradation in the study area. The data suggested that, in the study area Bullen woreda, wild fire annually happens and destroys so many forest resources. According to the data gathered from key informants, causes of this wild fire is some local communities due to their thinking of after firing the forest they enjoy new and better grass for their livestock. Due to this thinking, they destroy forest resource annually by wild fire.
The third cause of deforestation is fire wood, which is rated by the respondents. According to the response, majority of the respondents rated “low”. As the data gathered from key informants also suggest that, fire wood is not as such a major cause of deforestation. The key informants said that, the community mostly uses old trees and the dried one for fire wood. So the negative contribution of fire wood for deforestation is low in the study area.
The fourth cause of deforestation in the study area is house construction which is rated by the respondents. According to the response, majority of the respondents rated ”high”. The data gathered from key informants suggested that, the community constructs their house not annually, rather with the average of eight or nine year’s gap. Due to this house construction is not taken as a major cause of deforestation.
The fifth cause of deforestation is charcoal making. It is rated by the respondents and majority of the respondent rated ”low”. In addition to bureaucrat respondents, key informants suggested that, charcoal making is not as such a major cause of deforestation in the study area. They pointed out that, using forest resource for charcoal making is legally forbidden except the dry trees and old trees with the permission of forestry sector. Majority of the rural Communities in the study area use fire wood, which is dry tree for cooking rather than using charcoal.
As the majority response shows that, charcoal making is not a major cause for deforestation in Bullen woreda. So the negative contribution of charcoal for deforestation is low in the study.

The sixth cause of deforestation is illegal logging. It is rated by the respondents and the majority of the respondents rated “low”. In addition, the researcher also gathered the data from key informants suggested that, a concerned body of the government takes a legal action on illegal loggers. The key informants said that, most of the time, those illegal loggers are a society who cuts a tree for timber. The government allowed only the old trees for timber with permeation and the tree that the individual planted in their own land or garden. So illegal logging is not taken as a major cause of deforestation in the study area.
4.5.2. Effects of Forest Degradation in Bullen woreda
Deforestation is a contributor to global warming and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions (Williams, 2006). Removal of forest cover leads to Climate change, loss of animal habitat, shortage of fuel wood, Water and soil resource loss and flooding (GirmaAssefa 2015).
The findings from the questionnaires of bureaucrats working in the organization of three selected forestry sector in Bullen woreda revealed that, among effects of deforestation temperature increase is rated by the respondents and the majority of the respondents rated ”high”. It is also a global phenomenon that every country is facing now.
Among the effects of deforestation respondents also rated the current extent of increase in land erosion. According to the response, majority of the respondents rated ”high”.
The key informants suggested that, due to deforestation land erosion is highly occurred in the study area. Key informants also said that, mmountain area and hill side land is mostly exposed for erosion due to high grazing on it. And also during agriculture thy cleared tree which protects land from erosion by its root. In addition to clearing the tree, some farmers also has no the knowledge of contour farming. These all mentioned problem above led to high extent of land erosion in Bullen woreda.
Among the effects of deforestation, decrease in kind and number of wild life is rated by the respondents. According to the response, majority of the respondent rated ‘high’. The key informants also pointed out that, due to deforestation the kind and number of wild life is highly decreased.

4.5.3 Challenges and Opportunities of Forest Management in Bullen woreda
Challenges
Among the challenges of forest management, lack of awareness was rated by the respondents. Majority of the respondent rated ‘low’. In addition to the responses of questionnaire of bureaucrats, the data gathered from the structured interview question of representatives and woreda level report suggest that majority of the workers in forestry sector took a training on environment and forest issues. The key informants also suggested that, in some extent there is awareness on forest management but the problem is giving less attention to forestry sector during practice and implementation.
The current extent of lack of government support as a challenge for forest management was also rated by the respondents. The majority of respondent rated ‘low’. Besides to the structured questionnaire, key informants response also suggests that, even though there is a limitation on a government support, this limitation is not taken as the major challenge of forest management. Additionally as the researcher’s field observation and woreda level report, the budgetary system and material support for forestry sector is more or less better comparing to other sectors. Therefore, in the above findings, one can understand that lack of government support is not taken as a major challenge of forest management in the study area.
Finally, among the challenges of forest management, Clear rule and regulation on forest management and lack of community mobilization were rated by the respondents.
As the response forwarded on clear rule and regulation for challenging of forest management, majority of the respondent rated ‘low’. The key informants suggested that there are some problems of forestry rule and regulations in relation to rural agricultural development and commercial investments versus forest management and conservation strategies. As the key informant response, investment sector is giving land for commercial investment to promote agricultural productivity. To become productive and profitable, investors prefer fertile land which is mostly found in the forest area. Due to this, most of commercial investments are took place in forest area. This result on the cleaning of forests found in the given land. On the other hand, forestry sector is also working for maintaining and sustainability of forest health by conserving and managing forests resources. When thinking to rules and regulations of forest management, the idea of investment and rural development versus forest management activities are more or less challenging to the management system. But, as a general finding, lack of clear rule and regulation is not taken as a major challenge of forest management in the study area.
Among the challenges of forest management, lack of community mobilization is also rated by the respondents and the majority rated ‘high’. The key informants also said that there is lack of community mobilization in forest management. This lack of community mobilization is due to, bureaucrats less attention to mobilization, lack of budget and transportation problem to address all localities, lack of communication between the woreda level management and local administrators are cause for lack of community mobilization. In this finding, one can understand that, lack of community mobilization is taken as a major challenge of forest management.
Opportunities
According to the finding of the study, the following are opportunities of forest management and also the rate of those opportunities in detail. Among opportunities of forest management, the first opportunity is planting tree, which was rated by the respondents. Majority of the respondents said “high”. In addition to the bureaucrat’s response, data from field observation and the key informant’s response suggested that, the implementation of planting tree in Bullen woreda is not satisfactory; because it is only taken place in Participatory Forest Management/PFM/ areas which are found only in the three kebeles. According to the above data, even though planting of tree is taken as opportunity of forest management in the study area, the majority response indicates that, the extent and rate of planting tree is low.
The second opportunity is forest conservation activities, which was rated by the respondents. Majority of the respondent rated ‘low’. The data from field observation also indicate that, forests are damaged by wild fire due to low conservation activity. The key informants also suggested that, there is annual wild fire that destroys so many forest areas due to lack of proper conservation and protection. In the above finding, one can understand that forest conservation activity in the study area is low.
The third opportunity is protecting of forest from wild fire, which was rated by the respondents. Majority of the responds rated ”low”. As the field observation and key informants also suggested, wild fire is highly destroying forest resource annually in the study area. So the finding shows that, the implementation of protecting forest from wild fire is low in the study area.
The fourth opportunities is protecting of forest from illegal logging, which was rated by the respondents. According to the response, majority of the respondents rated ‘low’. The data from key informant also suggest that, the rate of protecting forest from illegal logging is low.
The fifth opportunities is good decision making on forest management, which was rated by the respondents. Majority of the respondents said “medium”. The key informants also suggested that, the rate of decision making in forest management is somewhat medium in the study area.
The sixth opportunity is a forest development activity which was rated by the respondents. Majority of the respondents rated “low”. In addition to the above response, the data gathered from field observation and key informants suggested that, forest development activities are done only in the area of Participatory Forest Management/PFM/ which is only found in the three kebeles namely Dobi kebele/Zoni PFM, which covers 1336 hectare/, Bullen 02 Kebele/Duchin PFM, which covers 673.069 hectare/ and Baruda kebele/Kuzkuri PFM, which covers 678.5 hectare/.
As the finding shows that, Even though we considered the above activities as opportunities of forest management, the development activity done is not as such satisfactory in the study area.

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 CONCLUSION
Based on the finding of the study, there are many causes of deforestation in the study area. Among this, agricultural expansion is one of a major cause of deforestation. Even though there is accessibility of institutional and legal framework for the management of forest, there is demand of forest land for agriculture due to improper use of the previous land and going to search of another forest area which they consider as fertile/shifting cultivation/. In addition to this, there are also commercial investments which cause deforestation. As agriculture is a country’s main economic source, in the study area Bullen woreda, most of the society is agrarians. These most agrarians who live in the remote rural area expand their agricultural land and also use a method of shifting cultivation which highly becomes cause for deforestation.
According to the study, the other causes of deforestation in the study area are wild fire, fire wood, house construction, charcoal making, and illegal logging
Among these causes, wild fire is highly affecting forest resources in the study area. Annually wild fire is constant, and damages so many forest and grass in the study area. As the study shows that, the cause of this wild fire is local peoples. Local peoples think that if they clean the forest area annually by fire, they enjoy new and better grass for their cattle. But the result is the loss of forest resources and the treatment of wild life.
Even though the study also shows that, fire wood, house construction, charcoal making, and illegal logging are causes of deforestation, the rate of these factors is low.
The findings also show that, among effects of deforestation temperature increase is rated by the majority respondents as ‘high’. The key informants also suggested that tempreture is highly increased. This shows that, there is high temperature increase due to deforestation. This is also a global phenomena occurring now a day.
Among the effects of deforestation, land erosion is increasing as the majority of response rewarded. As the researcher also gathered data by open ended question on land erosion, hill side land is mostly exposed for erosion due to high grazing on it. And also during agriculture they cleared tree which protects land from erosion by its root. In addition to clearing the tree, some farmers also has no the knowledge of contour farming. These all mentioned problem above led to high extent of land erosion in Bullen woreda.
Decrease in kind and number of wild life is another effect of deforestation happening in the study area. According to the finding, due to deforestation, the number and kinds of wild life is highly decreased.
According to the study, there are also challenges and opportunities of forest management in the study area. Among the challenges lack, of awareness, lack of government support, Clear rule and regulation on forest management and lack of community mobilization are the major ones.
Among the opportunities of forest management, planting of tree, forest conservation, protection of forest from wild fire, protection of forest from illegal logging, decision making on forest management and forest development activities are the major opportunities of forest management in the study area.
5.2. RECOMMENDATION
According to the research result, it needs much more effort and commitment to improve the forest management system and reach to sustainability stage. Therefore, it is essential to consider the following recommendation.
– The woreda forestry sector should be committed to direct and implement the administration and management of forests in the woreda. This should consider that, the forestry sector to be equipped with all necessary budget and professionals. In addition, the forestry sector should create a team to monitor the planning and implementation of plan.
– The woreda should advance PFM and develop in other kebeles found in the woreda. In addition, by working together with regional government, the woreda should issue the utilization rule and regulation for sustainable use of forests in their locality.
– Besides to PFM, afforestation and reforestation programs should be applied in all kebeles.
– During investment, especially commercial investment, Environmental Impact Assessment/EIA/ should be done before giving land for investment. This is because; commercial investment in the area is causing deforestation as the study shows.
– Awareness creation should be done for public to change the attitude and bad habit of devastating forests for different function and even without any reason.
– The woreda administration bodies should prepare project proposal and search NGOs that work on environment and forest management activities.
– Identifying challenges and opportunities of forest management to maintain opportunities and overcome the challenges.
– Media campaigns should be used to inform the local communities on the importance of forest.
– Forest management planning and implementation should include all stakeholders of government, agencies and non-government actors.
– The forest management committees should regularly monitor and evaluate the implementation of the plan.
– Promoting communities to use integrated agricultural method that employs the interactive benefits of combining trees with crops and livestock, which is called agro-forestry. This combining agriculture with forestry can create divers, profitable, productive and sustainable use of land.
– Besides to agro-forestry, to promote local peoples participation, working for integrating community benefit with forest management can improve the sustainable use of forest resources.

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