Chapter II Review of Related Literature School Reputation Different institutions
Review of Related Literature
Different institutions, like schools, have their own ways of interacting with the environment of a variety of situations. And this interaction can most likely be a means of strategy of the institution in relation to building up a stature to be seen by the public audience. One of many important results of these interactions is public relation which pertains the management of information by an institution extended to the public. CITATION Sag14 l 1033 (Sagir, Dos, & Cetin, 2014)The most valuable factor in relation to public relation is the reputation. Business man and investor, Warren Buffet, once said “It takes twenty years to build a reputation and five minutes to ruin it”. As this was in reference to businesses, there’s no denying that this applies to any institution, including schools. Sometimes great results can overshadow the slump. But when this happens conversely, one might consider it a great downfall.
The concern on reputation is gradually progressing and during the process, its components were identified. One of which is the influential combination of culture and climate on the identity of an institution. This states that the school’s academic system defines its own image that which will unlock their competitive capabilities. Those who put academic excellence and similar factors as a priority in building up their reputation are unhappy as they are aware that this may result to students competing against each other, hence, turning a school into a boxing match instead of a happy place. This concludes from the identity of the school and customer (students and parents) satisfaction that which is proven to be a factor that may enhance the reputation of any types of business according to Bontis, Booker, & Serenko (2007).
School location is also a key factor influencing school reputation for the fact that the local environment has a great impact on students’ as well as their parents’ socio-economic circumstances which then creates a certain level of expectation and satisfaction. In some cases like two similar universities with similar quality in terms of facilities and equipment but differ in geographic matter may vary because of socio-economic profiles of those enrolled in the institution. CITATION Sag14 l 1033 (Sagir, Dos, & Cetin, 2014)Another is the school type (public or private) because distinctive sectors have distinctive needs, offers and students’ profile be it socio-economic or academic. Every educational institution aims to expand the knowledge of their students by means of teaching. Despite having the same principle, schools may vary in terms of styles of teaching, content, equipment being used, and learning opportunities.
People, especially those who are financially abled, always feel the need to have and be the best. When students and/or parents decide which school to enroll in, deciding for their future comes along with it. The school which they choose to become a part of is the same one that will appear on their resume and where their future networks will be. CITATION Tor18 l 1033 (Torrillo, 2018)
Employability refers to the attributes of a graduate and individual’s perception of his or her chance of obtaining a new, equal, and maintained higher employment. It is having the capability to gain initial employment and new employment required. (Hillage and Pollard, 1998) The employability of young graduates has become one of the first priorities in some other countries, particularly in Europe, national and personal level. (Kostoglou and Poloukis, 2007) The idea of employability is a high concern nowadays with the uncertain economic condition that exposes both the employers and employees to ambiguities, showing some of the independent factors concerning employability.
There are some factors of influences in order to provide distance education for the students. As defined by Brynteson (2013) employability is a set of skill and ability that helps to search proper and accurate employment and obtain new types of employment in accordance with the knowledge and experiences. Those has covered some areas of employability, those are as follows: The importance of abilities and skills that has been required by the graduates of higher studies, Level of satisfaction of the graduates, Level of graduate education that will be best suited for the positions that is vacant, Factors of influencing the recruitment of graduates, Reputation of various types of educational institution, Quantity and type of training that has been given to the graduates of institution, Major challenges of institutions in order to hire the higher graduates, Coordination as well as cooperation among the educational institutions and various types of companies, Several views upon the process of making more employable to the higher graduates.
Employability refers to the attributes of a person that make that person able to gain and maintain employment. A set of achievements – skills, understandings and personal attributes that make graduates more likely to gain employment and be successful in their chosen occupations, which benefits themselves, the workforce, the community and the economy CITATION Yor04 l 13321 (Yorke, 2004). Employability is the sole purpose of having higher education. This is to prove a person capability and development. Today employers are looking for people who are capable of performing various tasks and roles.
A research was conducted and the data was collected using questionnaires that were distributed to two hundred and sixty employees. According to a researcher, in the last decades of the 20th century, with the advent of knowledge based economy, the economic structure of countries began to change very fast and employability began to be much more uncertain. Employability becomes very important nowadays as it guides them to move from one job to another, within and between organizations. It said that an employer would hire a person who is valuable for the company and the value is measured in terms of his productivity and quality of performance. CITATION Tom07 l 13321 (Tome, 2007)External employability refers to the ability and willingness to switch to a similar or another job in another firm, and therefore reflects the value of workers’ human capital in the external labor market. Internal employability refers to a worker’s ability and willingness to remain employed with the current employer, which is the value of a worker’s human capital in the internal labor market. Employees with higher level of education are also expected to be more employable because of the qualifications they possess. However, it was found in a study conducted by Groot and Maasen van den Brink (2000) that only formal training (on-the-job training) had significant positive impact on employability. Groot and Maasen van den Brink found that employees who work in firms that organize training are likely more employable at other tasks. Higher level and longer time of education increases the level pf employability. Employers are also a factor on employability since employers have more experience and higher expectations on employees making this difficult for employees to adapt the skills and requirements. Employability is influenced by many factors such as career management practices, training, job experience, education and tenure. CITATION Juh10 l 13321 (Juhdi, Pa’Wan, Othman, & Moksin, 2010)Employers and mentors equip employees and graduates with knowledge and skills to prepare and help them meet the needs and expectations of the employers. Mentoring has enhanced the employability of a university’s fresh graduates. Fresh graduates should be aware of other factors they will encounter.
Fresh graduates should adapt to the changes in today’s workforce due to the change and increasing competition for jobs. It is important for them to know the qualities the employers are looking for to meet the needs of the society. Perceptions of the employers on graduates are important because this provide guidelines for improvements on the education and experience received during university days. Perceptions of employers is not only for the students but also for the university, their perception will change the education a university provides for its students to meet the requirements the employers need. University must also understand the employers’ needs so that they may educate and prepare students to graduate with the required skills.
A survey was conducted to 45 randomly selected graduates from 2007-2008. This is to determine the employability skills desired in an industry. This survey was a descriptive, cross sectional study on the attitudes, attributes and professionalism presentation of graduates in the workforce. The questionnaire method was chosen because it was the most practical way to assess the information perceived by graduates and employers.
The perception of the employers would indicate on how important employability skills of the graduates in his or her employment and how competent they perceived the graduate to be at performing the skills. The study consisted of 34 graduates (13 students from 2007 and 21 students from 2008) and 29 employers who returned the questionnaire. The employers demonstrated applying theory into practice as the most important employability skills. Other employability skills items included keeping up-to-date on latest information regarding the professionalism, willingness to gain new knowledge, honest and know their own limitations, establishing good rapport with patients, being responsible and reliable and ability to work as a team.
Education should reflect and meet the society’s needs and demands. While preparing an academic program, surveys carried out on employers can provide universities some information regarding the quality of teaching and learning process that they have undergone during their education. From the employers’ perceptions, they viewed that “applying theory into practice” is the most important skill that a graduate should have. Applying what they have learned during university study will lead them to have a higher level of performance. A number of studies found that the expectations of employer on graduates in relation to university education appear to be strongly influenced by highly context-bound interpretations of desirable graduate capabilities, competencies and the professional attributes of a profession
It concluded that this study provided areas where employers’ perceived the skills that needed to be improved. The study can improve and increase the standard of education to create a better quality of education to fulfill what the students need, employers, society and nation. The perception of employers from time to time can be used to overcome the weakness of preparing students in their workforce so that the educational system is meeting the needs of the current market and professional needs.
Employers also look to the graduated school of the applicants. School Reputation has been one of the said “requirements” now a day in a business world. School Reputations has an impact in the Employability.
A strong academic reputation is the most important factor in college choice. So of course, students want to attend a school that will give them the best foundation for success. That’s why school reputation is important. Organizational structure has been a part and became well known to the schools and many new ones are added day by day list to the new difficulties they have to face. The way in which an organization is recognize by the external and internal stakeholders is known as the reputation of organization and is a well-known research subject since it appears. The aim of the study conducted by Gotsi and Wilson (2001) is to investigate whether schools have a type of reputation although the term itself has some financial connotations on both staff and customers. The result, within this study, tried to reveal if reputation exists at school organizations and its components, factors effected by and effecting school reputation in addition to head teachers’ roles in reputation management process prior to head teachers’ views. CITATION Sagir14 l 13321 (Sagir ; Cetin, 2014)A research study CITATION Shr88 l 13321 (Shrum, 1988) had a survey about relationship between reputational status is regressed on productivity on the individual and organizational level, organizational structure and network position the respondents asked to rate corporate research.. It concluded that this study provided areas where employers’ perceived the skills that needed to be improved. The study can improve and increase the standard of education to create a better quality of education to fulfill what the students need, employers, society and nation. The perception of employers from time to time can be used to overcome the weakness of preparing students in their workforce so that the educational system is meeting the needs of the current market and professional needs.
This study approaches how college choice factors for high-achieving students repeatedly name academic reputation as one of the leading indicators of choice. The academic reputation of a university is a key factor in the employment of the best and brightest students; but it is also the case that the recruitment of the best and brightest students is critical for positive development of an institution’s academic reputation. Likewise, with a mass of colleges and universities competing for the best qualified students, it is a better challenge for some institutes than others to attract the highest desirable students to their institutions.
Many institutions of higher education are striving for better levels of status and prestige. Universities such as Harvard, Princeton and Columbia have a long history of prestige and a solid reputation for quality, therefore appealing the most capable students. Well into the future, the names of such universities will likely attract the best and brightest students from around the globe.
In addition to gathering information regarding academic reputation, the study also collected student responses regarding the importance of media rankings in their matriculation decisions. The results of the study indicated a significant relationship between students who considered academic reputation to be very important and students who attended higher-tiered universities.
The research design of this study is quantitative because its findings will be data-based and therefore, needs to be objectively measured through statistical analysis of the data to find out the influence of school reputation to the employability of fresh graduates from HEIs. This research is a non-experimental correlational study. The results will explain the linkage between a school’s reputation and the employability of graduates.
This study will be conducted in Tacloban City, Region VIII of the Philippines. The participants of this study will be the employees and employers of major institution within Tacloban City. The researchers chose the desired place for them to acquire the needed information for the study.
Participants of the Study
This study will be conducted at different major institutions here in Region VIII. The participants of this study will be the employees and employers from different major institutions. The population will be needing 30 participants for this survey. This will be comprised of 15 men employees and employers and 15 women employees and employers. The sampling method that will be used is the systematic sampling method because members from a larger population are selected according to a random starting point and a fixed periodic interval. Each of the employees and employers from the different school in taking a survey; interested in taking part, a meeting will be arranged where they could be fully briefed regarding the requirements of the study.
Instrument of the Study
The data will be collected by distributing survey questionnaire among employees and employers in various universities and companies in Region VIII. In this study, the researchers will use a researcher-made survey questionnaire (Likert Scale Questionnaire) to gather the data needed for the study. The questionnaire will be divided into two (2) sections. Section A questionnaire covers the topic about the first variable which is about the employability, on the other hand Section B covers the second variable which is all about the school reputation.
Validation of and Establishing Reliability
In this Research the researchers will provide a letter to conduct a survey in all the Major Institutions here in Region 8, if the request of permission will be granted, the researchers will explain to the chosen participants the following instructions.
The findings of this study will be determined through the use of the SPSS. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) is a statistical software that is used for analyzing mathematical equations and statistical data. SPSS is a tool that can be used by the researchers to collect data and to run statistical tests. Therefore, doing mathematical equations by hand would not be necessary. This software will be useful in formulating the population mean and Pearson r correlation.
This study will be formulating the population mean which will be the average score of the population on a given variable. Pearson r correlation analysis will also be used as this will measure the degree of relationship between school reputation and employability. These functions are represented by:
?=i=1nXiN?= Population meanXi = sum of all scores in N = Population sizea given population
Pearson r correlation:
r=N xy? (x)(y)N x2- (x2)N y2- (y2)r = Pearson r correlation coefficientN = number of observations
xy = sum of the products of paired scoresx = sum of x scores
y = sum of y scoresx2 = sum of squared x y2 = sum of squared y scoresscores
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