Chapter 1 The Problem Introduction Information education and communication
Information education and communication (IEC) materials attempt to reach their target audience so that they will be informed, aware and prepared in terms of decision making. The information is usually about community issues that the agency or a specific organization wants the audience to be informed on. Today materials and medium like print, radio, and video have made information easily disseminated to help the audience in preparedness and awareness concerning societal issues.
Natural calamities and disasters are one of the most common problems the Philippines is facing at the present time. Typhoons, earthquakes, floods, and landslides are some examples in which it killed many and left homes devastated. The present study focuses on the topic disaster health and emotional effects. Through the coordination and partnership with the City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office (CDRRMO) of Malaybalay, this problem will be addressed and will be given attention. The present study will develop IEC materials by means of poster, radio plug and informational video on disasters, health and emotional effects.
Based from the assessment conducted by the researchers from the city government of Malaybalay, they found that Sitio Panamukan of Barangay San Jose is one of the barangays that are prone to disaster (CDRRMO Malaybalay, 2018).
The council would like to figure out the occurrence of health and emotional effects after the disaster occurs in the barangay. This includes building a partnership with agencies and with the barangay. Through producing IEC materials this will help in the improvement of the people's knowledge about disasters health and emotional effects. Thus, the present study will develop IEC materials by means of a poster, radio plug and informational video on disasters, health and emotional effects.
Framework of the study
There are two theories of development communication that anchor this study. These are the theory of reasoned action and relevance theory.
The theory of reasoned action was developed as an improvement over Information Integration theory (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). There are two important changes. First, reasoned actions add another element in the process of persuasion, behavioral intention. Rather than attempt to predict attitudes, as does Information Integration theory (and several others), reasoned action is explicitly concerned with behavior. However, this theory also recognizes that there are situations (or factors) that limit the influence of attitude on behavior. For example, if our attitude leads us to want to go out on a date but we have no money, our lack of money will prevent our attitude from causing us to go on a date. Therefore, reasoned action predicts behavioral intention, a compromise between stopping at attitude predictions and actually predicting behavior. Because it separates behavioral intention from behavior, the reasoned action also discusses the factors that limit the influence of attitudes (or behavioral intention) on behavior. The second change from information integration theory is that reasoned action uses two elements, attitudes and norms (or the expectations of other people), to predict behavioral intent. That is, whenever our attitudes lead us to do one thing but the relevant norms suggest we should do something else, both factors influence our behavioral intent. For example, John’s attitudes may encourage him to want to read a Harry Potter book, but his friends may think this series is childish. Does John do what his attitudes suggest (read the book) or what the norms of his friends suggest (not read the book)? This theory is relevant to the researcher’s study especially in the making the Informational, Educational, Communication (IEC). The theory is intended for behavioral characteristics and predicting once attitudes. The IEC materials being produced is about the effects of disasters on health and emotional aspect. It has important implication for health education in examining health related behavior and implementing and developing health prevention programs. It will be used in terms of predicting and understanding intentions, behaviors and outcomes of health related emotional such as; trauma and other effects cause by the disaster.
The second theory is the relevance theory (Sperber & Wilson, 1986) can be defined as an attempt to work out in detail. Communication (both verbal and nonverbal) requires the ability to attribute mental states to others. According to Sperber and Wilson, There are two ways to conceive of how thoughts are communicated from one person to another. The first way is through the use of strict coding and decoding also known as the Shannon-Weaver model. In this approach, the speaker/author encodes their thoughts and transmits them to their audience. The audience receives the encoded message and decodes it to arrive at the meaning the speaker/author intended. This theory is relevant to the present study because it helps the researchers to make an IEC material for print, radio, and video that would relate to the lifestyles of the target audience. The theory emphasized that the messages are encoded by the target audience because it is relevant to them. In the present study, the researchers will demonstrate an IEC material that will give ideas on how to manage emotional and health effects of disasters to the members of the communities. For example, mark do the things he read, saw, or hear in the radio, print or informational video not because he like it but because he thinks that it is important to do and he believes that it will help them to survive in a certain situation. The relevance theory is important in the present study because it will develop the materials in print, radio and video that based on the interest of the target audience. This theory is a guide to the researchers in making the study to achieve the objectives and purpose of the IEC materials that would easily understand by the people of the community.
The next section of this framework is a discussion of the concepts that anchor each of the IEC material. It will discuss the sets of concepts for print, radio and video advocacy. Figure 1 shows the schema of the concepts used for each material. The next section of this framework is a discussion of the concepts that anchor each of the IEC material. It will discuss the sets of concepts for print, radio and video advocacy. Figure 1 shows the schema of the concepts used for each material.
Information Education and Communication Materials for disasters health and emotional effects.
Figure 1. The schematic diagram of the study showing the concepts that anchor each IEC material and its relationship to one another.
On the first box located on the left are the elements of the poster as used in the present study.
Poster is a large notice or picture that you stick on a wall or board, often to advertise something (collinsdictionary.com, n.d). Posters are found in public places all over the world. They are usually visually striking, designed to attract the attention of passers-by and entice them to purchase a particular product or service, make them aware of a political viewpoint, or attend a specific event (Gallo, 2002).
The first element of the present poster is the message. The message is defined as a communication containing some information, news, advice, request, or the like, sent by messenger, telephone, email, or other means (dictionary.com, n.d.). Be clear and precise about the theme, do not over complicate, and keep to one main idea. Often the simple the message the more effective is the poster. It needs to be understood in a glance. The message is often conveyed in many ways; it may include the design of the poster, the chosen font phase, the color scheme and the graphics. Treat the creation of the poster as one process to deliver the chosen message (Jennings, 2012). An effective poster should have a clear content of what it is trying to connect with the readers. It should be easy to read regardless how attractive it is and also it should have the right font so that it would have clearer readability among the readers. It would be used to communicate clearly and raise awareness the target audience.
The second element of the present poster is the design. The design is a plan or drawing produced to show the look and function or workings of a building, garment, or other objects before it is built or made (oxforddictionaries.com, 2017). Since there a short amount of time to attract the reader’s attention, with this element the researchers will plan appropriately the poster;s design that could create a great impact on the intended audience. Design is important in producing a poster because it is the key factor that will attract those who will read it. A well designed poster will catch the audience attention. It would help to communicate a message to its audience. Under it are balance, color, font and simplicity.
Balance is the distribution of the visual weight of object, colors, texture, and space (Paul, 2011). A balance of text to images (or graphics) is an important part of creating any visual marketing tool. Whether one is creating a poster for an event, a billboard to promote a product or a brochure to showcase products/services or customers, the use of text and images and the visual strength of the final artwork will have a big say in its overall impact with the existing and prospective customers (digitalprinting.co.uk, 2013). Balance to the design is important in creating or producing a good poster for it will not be too much or too less in the eyes of the reader. Too much on the poster will somehow get the readers distracted or confused on what the poster is trying to convey and too less on the poster will not attract any readers at all.
Color is the quality of an object or substance with respect to light reflected by the object, usually determined visually by measurement of hue, saturation, and brightness of the reflected light (dictionary.com, 2018). This element affects the human being and some of this suggests that men and women may respond to colors differently. Color affects human emotionally, with different colors evoking different emotions. In short, color has the capacity to affect the human nervous system. Colors may include the hue (primary color), value (lightness and darkness), intensity (purity or saturation), monochromatic color (color changes), analogous (color that is adjacent to each other), complementary colors (opposite to each other on the color wheel), warm color (blood, sun and fire) and cool colors (snow and ice) (Berdan, 2004). Color is important to catch the attention of the readers. It may serve as the reader;s connection to what the topic the poster is trying to convey. Color also needs balance for the readers not to get distracted or else they will just ignore it.
The font is a graphical representation of text that may include a different typeface, point size, weight, color, or design (computerhope.com, 2017). Choosing the right font for a poster help the reader’s readability. The use of proper fonts may also have an impact on the attractiveness of the poster its color, size and how it combines to the design of the poster. Through the use of proper fonts, readers will easily get the message of the poster.
Simplicity is a noun that means "the quality of being plain. and it describes a lack of ornamentation, like a Christmas tree that is only decorated with white lights instead of being fancied up with lots of ornaments, tinsel, and multi-colored bulbs and it also means "freedom from hardship or effort" like the simplicity of hanging out on your porch. Simplicity also describes something easy to accomplish or understand (vocabulary.com, 2017). Simplicity is important to producing posters because it will help the readers understand the poster in a less effort and can easily construct what the poster is about to their minds. Simplicity in the since of not too much but somehow catches the attention of the readers in a simple way.
The next element is clarity. It is the quality or state of being clear (merriam-webster.com, 2017). Clarity is the poster’s key message which is immediately clear to the reader. Be on the safe side, and list no more than five items. If one must address more than five times, group and categorize them into a tree-structure and with headings and sub-headings (Dalen et al., 2002) Clarity of the message should be practice in making a poster, this is important so that the readers can easily understand what message of the poster trying to convey. It is relevant to the present study because it will help the researchers to project the message clearly.
The last element of the present study is purpose. The purpose is defined as something that has an aim. When designing a poster you need to have an apparent vision of where you want to go with it and a message that will be crystal clear and easy for your customer to make out (digitalprinting.co.uk, 2013). Producing a poster should answer what is it for, to whom it the poster will be made and for what reason it is made. An effective poster should have a clear purpose so that the readers will not be confused about what is it all about and also a poster should have a broader idea of being purposive so that it will catch the attention of the readers as well. In this study, the purpose would be the basis in designing a poster that easily understand by the target audience.
On the second box located in the center are the elements of the radio plug as used in the present study.
A radio or television broadcast (noun) is a program that is transmitted over airwaves for public reception by anyone with a receiver tuned to the right signal channel (whatis.com, 2018). In order to transmit the same kind of programming, stations are connected to all the radio networks. Today we have many radio stations all over the world broadcasting by the means of transmission. Radio programs can be spoken word programs or music programs.
The first element of the radio plug is content. It is useful information that conveys a story, presented in a contextually relevant manner with the goal of soliciting an emotion or engagement. Delivered live, or asynchronously, content can be expressed using a variety of formats including text, images, video, audio and/or presentations. Cohen (2016) advised that for it to be more effective the information need to be short, clear and catchy. It should attract listener’s attention. It should keep listeners attentive until the end of the plug. It should have an impact on the listeners so that they remember it. Use remembering effects such as a melody, a voice or a phrase that is easy to remember. Transmit positive message, motivate people, don't depress them, even if the topic is depressive. This element is important because this will be the message we will be trying to convey that is relevant to make the listeners aware of the disaster’s effects on health and emotions.
The second element of the present radio plug is voice. It is defined as the sound produced in a person’s larynx and uttered through the mouth, as speech or song (oxforddictionaries.com, 2018). Voice is important in producing a radio plug because it conveys an emotion that will capture the ears and interest of the audience especially if it is produced for a certain cause that has a connection between the audiences. In this study, voice is important because it conveys meaning and it stimulates our visual imagination, also it creates the visual image in our minds.
Clarity is where radio relies on the human voice to connect with its audience. It is the voices of presenters that we respond to on a radio. They are the personification of a radio providing a personality with which we identify and connect. They amplify or in other words, increase the volume of the voice. When speaking before a microphone, the speaker doesn’t have to shout (www.jvoice.org). It must be pleasant and nice to listen. The character of the voice indicates a lot about who the character is. In this study, voice clarity will make the target audience to receive the right and specific message.
The third element of radio plug is music. Music is defined an art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and color (dictionary.com, 2018). Music is the soul of radio. It is used in different ways on a radio. Film songs and classical music programs are independent programs on radio. Music is also used as signature tunes or theme music of various radio programs. It is played on most radio stations not randomly selected by individual presenters or producers, but it is governed by a music policy that has been developed to appeal to the station’s target audience. Music has a unique ability to convey memory. Both song texts and tunes can remind us of people, places, and events, accessing an ancient “hard drive” of historical memory. Music is the straightest path to the emotional centers of the mind. Other sounds, dialogue or effects must be translated and understood first. It makes a significant contribution to radio but must be used with great discretion. Suitability is an important factor. Music is important to the present radio plug because it attracts the listeners and give emphasis on the scene being portray.
The fourth element of the present radio plug is the script. The script is defined as a written word of a play, movie or show, or a standard message to deliver on the phone or in person (yourdictionary.com, 2018). The script is the norm in the stations across the nation. While it may seem that things are flowing naturally on your favorite radio station you can bet that a radio show script is being used. Most radio shows are live, and to avoid catastrophe they will utilize a radio show script for the guests and the personalities alike. A radio script is a writing which gives the detail of how an entire program should be. A script takes some of the pressure off presenters doing live broadcasts. A radio script for a presenter is largely a safety measure but it needs to contain certain characteristics to make it effective. It is important because it provides reassurance that the researchers will know what they are going to say next so that they can concentrate on how they say it. Also, it ensures that an item is covered fully, in a logical manner and to set time.
The fifth element of the present radio plug is sound effects. Sound effects refer to effects that are imitative of sounds called for the script of a dramatic production (such as a radio show) and that enhance the production's illusion of reality (Merriam Webster 1828). In a radio program, it gives meaning and sense of location. It adds realism to a program and helps a listener to use imagination. Sound effects describe the circumstances of a dramatic audio situation. They can be used for such things as setting and place, conveying action, solving certain narrative problems and evoking characteristics. Effects should sound as though they were being heard by the character. Dubbing adds extra sound effects or brings disparate sounds together.
The last element of the present radio plug is audio quality. Audio quality is defined as the quality given to a sound by its overtones: such as the resonance by which the ear recognizes and identifies a voiced speech sound or the quality of tone distinctive of a particular singing voice or musical instrument (Merriam-webster.com, 2018). Good audio content is anything that keeps your listener through the next minute. Audio quality is determined by two main factors; the quality of the microphone and the proximity of the microphone to the person speaking. Audio has to be clear, decipherable, and free of distracting background noises such as hissing and buzzing. This element is very important to the present study in producing IEC materials because it can be used to evoke images, relevant issues or ideas that are being taught to inform/educate them.
On the third box located on the right are the elements of the informational videos used in the present study.
Video commonly refers to the time-based media storage format for sound/music and moving pictures information. It is a medium for expressing artistic creativity, data visualization, and optimizing the presentation of information for different audiences with different needs and expectations. Informational video requires careful attention to lighting, camera angles and background (Hamilton, 2016). It uses informational script writing and video scripts. Informational script writing uses a different set of tools from screenplays to entertain our audience, but also writing a script to solve a problem of some kind and video scripts often need to specify shots and the use of graphics, often the information is presented by a narrator either on camera or voice over, or both (Lippert, 2013).
The first element of the present informational video is the message content. Message content in its purest form is simply factual information about a product or subject. Information is the raw material that forms the elements for all the other afore mentioned facets that go into preparing a promotional advertising message for mass consumption. It is these message elements that become the foundation that all advertising concepts are built upon. For in the world of advertising, information without adaptation is considered boring and non-attractive (theinformedillustrator.com, 2013). One of the characteristics of message content must be persuasive and yet the negative impact of the low-credibility source should be strong enough to offset the positive impact of the message content (Stiff and Mongeau, 2016). This element is important to the design and development of the present video because the researchers will use it to deliver the message about disaster’s effect on health and emotion.
Informativeness is the condition of being informative (yourdictionary.com, 2018). The information which a program or a device conveys to a person contains a semantic part. The property described as the portion of the useful information contained in the overall message can be called informativeness (artlebedev.com, n.d.). An effective informational video is concise, clear and informative. This is important because it will help the intended audience to understand the disasters effects through informational video.
The second element of the present informational video is music. Music is an art form consisting of sequences of sounds in time, especially tones of definite pitch organized melodically, harmonically, rhythmically and according to tone color. It is also an art form characteristic of a particular people, culture, or tradition: Indian music, rock music, and baroque music the sounds so produced, especially by singing or musical instruments (dictionary.com, 2012). This is important because music gets the attention of the viewers of the informational video. It also creates emotional sensation towards the viewer and with music, the video will not be boring to them.
Background music is often recorded, intended to provide a soothing background, usually played over loudspeaker systems in public places, as railway stations or restaurants. Music is composed specifically to accompany and heighten the mood of a visual production, as a movie (dictionary.com, 2018). Traditional examples of background music include music played at various social gatherings and music played in certain retail venues. It is also common to employ background music in various electronic media including film, television, video games, and Internet videos such as video blogs. Background music is important to the present study because it creates an emotional flow of the informational video this will create attention and attraction to the viewers. It also makes the mood lively.
Sound effects are any sound, other than music or speech, artificially reproduced to create an effect in a dramatic presentation, as the sound of a storm or a creaking door (dictionary.com, 2018). The basic properties of a sound are its frequency, its amplitude, its timbre and its propagation. Frequency determines the pitch of the sound, the amplitude is about the loudness, timbre is about the “sound” and propagation is about how it spreads (Ambiantmixerblog, 2014). The sound effect is important because it creates a dramatic effect towards the viewers and to the informational video that is being viewed. It also attracts the viewer’s attention and it makes the mood of the video lively.
The last element of the present informational video is visual composition. Visual composition is the placement or arrangement of visual elements or 'ingredients' in a work of art, as distinct from the subject. The term composition means 'putting together' and can apply to any work of art from music to writing to photography that is arranged using conscious thought. The visual composition is often used interchangeably with various terms such as design, form, visual ordering, or formal structure, depending on the context (Rudolf Arnheim, 2004). A sensible arrangement of components makes a design functional and attractive. A composition can be two dimensional, three dimensional or temporal. A good composition, like an organic entity, does communicate and offer a unique experience of its own. At one level it effectively communicates the message and at another, it aesthetically influences the viewers (ncert.nic, n.d). This element is important because it includes the camera shots, angles, transitions and the balance of colors. A well-balanced video or visual composition will attract the viewers.
Picture is defined as a design or representation made by various means (such as painting, drawing, or photography). It is a description of vivid or graphic suggesting a mental image or gives an accurate idea of something (merriam-webster.com, 2018). Pictures should have a solid composition such as object balancing, leading lines, and framing. This is important because it helps give an interpretation and will catch more attention to the viewers. Also, it helps illustrates events or scenario so that the viewer will understand it more.
Font is defined as a complete set of type of one style and size also called fount (dictionary.com, 2018). There are many designs of font to choose from. Fonts are important in creating a video because it helps translate or adds subtitle to something that the viewers can’t understand like a picture shown to a video presented. The style of the fonts used in a video also affects the viewer’s readability. So a good choice of font will be one tool on the attractiveness and the viewer’s eyes.
Video effects are defined as something that creates and provides interesting transitions from one scene to another rather than just switching frames. They include fading or dissolving the frame, wiping one frame over another and flipping the frame (encyclopedia2thefreedictionary.com, 2018). Video effect can alter the exposure or color of an image, add new visual elements, manipulate sound, distort images, enhance lighting, or create a transition. Video effects are an essential element that creates a realistic environment that catches the attention of the viewers. This element is important to the present study because it could change the viewer;s mood and may catch the viewer’s attention if it is done creatively.
Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are:
Do a needs assessment of City Disaster Risk Reduction Management office (CDRRMO) specifically on what needs to be enhanced, enriched and upgraded on the information dissemination of the IECs and to whom, where and what IECs.
Design and develop these IEC materials using the theories, concepts and elements identified in each of the specific IEC materials.
Validate the materials using a researchers-constructed instrument.
Significance of the Study
The following groups will be the beneficiaries of the result of the study:
Barangay San Jose. The people here would be helped specifically on the awareness concerning the disasters, effects on health and emotion, specifically those who are living in Sitio Panamukan affected directly by the concern. Through the help of the IECs, specific stakeholders will be provided with information that will be beneficial to them.
The City Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office (CDRRMO) would be helped with its information dissemination effort of its programs and projects. Through its dissemination, the Information Education Communication materials would give benefits to target audience and give important information for them.
The Development Communication students will learn how to obtain information from an agency and to produce an IEC material specifically the printed and visual medium, like poster, radio plug and informational video.
Delimitation of the Study
This is the study on research and development of IEC on disasters effect on health and emotion in Barangay San Jose specifically Sitio Panamukan. This study focuses on developing a poster, radio plug and informational videos on the topic on disasters, effects on health and emotions. The posters variables includes message content, design, balance, color, font, simplicity, clarity and purpose. The radio plug variables includes message content, voice, clarity, music, script, sound effects and audio quality. The informational video variables includes message content informativeness, music and visual composition elements in the production of these IECs. This study will be conducted in two semesters of school year 2017-2018 and 2018-2019.
Definition of Terms
For a better understanding of the study, the researcher used the theoretical and/or operational definition of the following terms:
Information, Education and Communication (IEC). IECs refers to a public health approach aiming at changing or reinforcing health-related behaviours in a target audience, concerning a specific problem and within a pre-defined period of time, through communication methods and principles (emro.who, 2014). In this study, EIC is the focal point wherein it would be the tool and/or the medium were relevant information related to the present study will be stated.
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