Advanced Placement U
Advanced Placement U.S. History Summer Assignment
Book Analysis for THE AMERICAN COLONIES By Alan Taylor
Directions: Students are to carefully read the book by Alan Taylor. Included in this packet is a set of questions/list of topics for which short answer responses will be asked to probe for understanding for each Chapter. Each student enrolled in APUSH is receiving a hard copy of this assignment. Additionally, the assignment may be found on Mrs. Conroy’s online classroom and can be emailed upon request. Short analytical quotes are permissible; however, I do not want the student to copy the material directly from Taylor’s book. All work should be written in the student’s own voice as a summary of understanding. A reader could expect the student to make three to five points on each topic listed below.
TIPS FOR SUCCESS
There are approximately 10 weeks in the summer. There are 19 chapters in the book. Students should strive to complete two chapters per week. Unless otherwise indicated, work does NOT need to be in complete sentences and MUST be original.
DO NOT WAIT until the last minute for this assignment. It will be impossible to complete in a short amount of time.
The work should be produced as a googledoc and is due to turnitin (on my online classroom) the night BEFORE school starts. A hard copy is due at the beginning of our first class period. This resource will be the foundation of our study of colonial America.
Books are available for purchase at the RICE LIBRARY BOOK FAIR, held at Barnes and Noble on:
? Friday, May 25vand Saturday, May 26 at the Barnes and Noble store in South Burlington on the first floor. Mention Rice at checkout and the purchase will benefit the Rice Library.
?Use Rice bookfair code 12106001 at checkout.
TITLE: American Colonies: The Settling of North America
AUTHOR: Alan Taylor
PUBLISHER: Penguin Books
ISBN #: 978-0-14-200210-0
If there are any questions at any time, please contact me at [email protected]
Part One: The Encounters
Chapter One: Natives:
Old world explorers encountered in the new world complex and diverse peoples—who, where, etc?
Old World explorers encountered Native Americans in the New World, whose lifestyle lead them to be seen as savages, especially the Hohokam and Anasazi Indians
Pre-Columbian America is “fraught with controversy.” What conflicts were they?
Pre-Columbian Americans are often seen as ecological people who that lived in unison with the people around them as well as nature. Despite this, European mythology claims them as deadly savages with a certain primitive lifestyle.
Without making Europeans out to be vile, cruel and violent, we should recognize that they had superior power but they gave new additions to Native Americans.
Europeans were more technologically advanced and had more determination to conquer land and start a new world.
Some natives had a culture that demanded less of the environment than that of other natives—such as:
Indians demanded less of the environment due to their migration, while others settled and tended to the land
What are Taylor’s three ideas which he argues about migration?
South America and North America people occupied last
Alaska to Siberia offered a passage from the Old World to the New
15,000 to 12,000 years ago was the perfect time for a crossing into North America
Chapter Two: Colonizers:
Taylor makes a big issue over environmentalism—why?
Taylor makes a big issue over environmentalism due to the fact that the environment worked in favor of the Europeans because it allowed them to be exposed to more natural resources. Yet, the opposite effect was put on the Native Americans for due the environmental revolution, their populations decreased.
What caused the expansion of Europe—and why?
Expansion in Europe was caused by the increase of food due to the power and wealth. Due to this, population increased and caused people to move.
What were the two major religions of the age of expansion? How do they come to impact the new world?
Christianity and Islam were the two major religions of the age of expansion. They come to impact the new world in their desperation to find a new trade route to Asia. By doing this, Christians explored the Atlantic accidentally and brought their religion to the New World.
Why is the Atlantic Ocean such a central vital environmental concern for the colonizers?
The weather in the Atlantic Ocean was a lot harder to navigate than the seas that the Europeans were accustomed to in the East.
Once across the Ocean, what were contributions of the colonizers to the New York area?
The colonizers contributed in the New York area by clearing the land for planting. However, the epidemics they brought with them had a much larger impact due to their great and deadly effect on the Native American population
What does Taylor say about slavery in the new world?
Taylor says that the colonists took the Native Americans and enslaved them to work on the sugar plantations, justifying their actions by saying that the slavery would eventually save their souls.
How significant was Renaissance science and technology for the colonizers?
Renaissance science and technology was significant for the colonizers because the discoveries of technology in the New World helped the colonists later in time.
Chapter Three: New Spain. Using bullets or short paragraphs, summarize Taylor’s assessment of
Conquests: 16th century, the Spanish colonized both South and North America and even some parts of the Caribbean. In Central America, they enslaved those who told them about the Aztec empire and their gold. Biggest advantage was the diseases they brought and how it greatly affected the Native American population. Feared by the other empires (French, Portuguese, English, and Dutch)
Conquistadores: Private, led by military personnel, done for money, needed permission from the crown to lead these conquests, trait: greed, forced Christianity and Spanish rules on those they conquered
Consolidation: Crown feared conquistadores were gaining too much power in New Spain, also thought they killed a mass amount of Indians who they could have converted to Christianity, eventually many of the conquistadores died fighting each other or retired
Colonists: Spanish immigrated to the Americas in the 1700s, middle class thrived, men took wives among the Indians
Empire: Center of Spanish Empire; Mexico and Peru, two large regions in the Americas called viceroyalties, controlled by a viceroy who was placed in charge by the crown
Gold ; Silver: From 1500 to 1650, the Spanish sent 181 tons of gold as well as 16,000 tons of silver from Mexico and Peru to Europe; led to economic inflation which led to the fall of Spain’s economy and military
Chapter Four: “The Spanish Frontier”:
Make a list of the achievements of Cabeza de Vaca
Survived Narvaez Expedition
Explored some of Texas and New Mexico
Healed those living in villages in Texas and New Mexico
Pushed for more respect for the Native Americans
Where did Hernando de Soto explore? What was his legacy?
Hernando de Soto led the first conquistador expedition to Florida; also conquested Central America and Peru. 1539, led a rampage through modern day Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas and east Texas. He also founded the Mississippi River. His men journey as far west as the Great Plains. Once Soto died however, disease spread and destroyed most of the villages that had been formed. Soto created an illusion of wilderness where a popular and complex civilization had once stood.
What did Coronado do and how does the seven cities myth develop? What happened to his money?
Begins as a romantic tale from the Spanish, but Fray Marcos did not find gold there but told the viceroy that he found a city that could be part of the seven cities. The viceroy sent Coronado to investigate, but he did not find the city. However, he heard of another city in the West, and journeyed there. When he did not find the city there, he killed the Indians that inhabited the land.
Florida became the focus of Spain—why? How?
Florida became the focus of Spain due to Spanish ships on Florida’s coast being attacked. As a result, a colony was placed on the Atlantic Coast by the king and queen of Spain.
Spain reaches west to New Mexico—use of the Adelanto system. Who was Onate?
Onate was the viceroy of Spain’s New Mexico company. Onate founded the colony along with Pueblo people, a group he treated poorly and killed. After a while, Onate was accused of adultery as well as enslaving Indians and eventually was found guilty.
What significance can be attached to New Mexico Missions? Franciscans, Benedictines, Dominicans.
Franciscan: 50 missions had been taken up by friars in the Rio Grande Valley by 1628, holding thousands of people who had converted.
What was the Pueblo Revolt, how did it begin and what happen to cause the fanaticism?
The Pueblo Revolt was long coming, for the Pueblos had on again off again conflict with the Franciscans and government for many years prior to them destroying ranches, farms, and specifically missions, for they made it their goal to mutilate the bodies of dead priests.
Chapter Five: Canada & Iroquoia a shift in geography, a new culture, and very different group of Native Americans
Northern parts of North America became the base of the French—discuss the map area.
All the French camps were placed along the St. Lawrence river, allowing them to gain access to the Atlantic Ocean
What were the two major Native American cultural groups? How were they distinct?
The two major Native American cultural groups were Iroquoian and Algonquian. These two tribes respective tribes language and culture were what set them apart from the other native groups in Canada.
The key for economic development was the fur trade of New France. Why was that so?
By using Fur Trade, it benefited both parties involved. The Europeans became dependent on the Natives for clothing while the Natives became more dependent on the Europeans for guns, copper, and other Native values.
How and why did trade develop? Discuss.
Trade developed due to the alliances the French colonists made with the Northern Algonquians as well as specific groups from the Iroquois cultures such as the Hurons. This allowed the Natives to adopt trade as a powerful asset in gaining other goods from the colonists as well as gave them certain advantages over rival groups.
How did the fur trade operate in its widest applications
The Fur Trade operated in its widest applications when it first began. In what is now modern day Newfoundland, Indians gave colonists fur coats in exchange for shiny beads and copper. Furs were valued in Europe, due to their hunting habits making wildlife scarce and making them more valuable for colonists.
What was the role of Canada in development of New France?
Canada was essential to the development of New France in multiple aspects. First off, it was a safe distance from the rival colony of Spain. From an economic standpoint, it was colder up north, making furs thicker as well as in higher demand. Thirdly, the Native groups in the north were better at hunting. Geographically, the St.Lawrence River led the farthest west than any other river in North America, giving France advantages on expeditions as well as the mouth of the river, located in Quebec, being large enough to hold trading ships coming in from Europe.
Analyze and characterize The Five Nations. Who were they?
The Five Nations were a group of Iroquois who experienced a unique lifestyle. They were a war oriented people, living in fortified villages in the hills. The women harvested the fields in order for the men to be able to fight, and travel without tiring or becoming hungry
What impact did old world disease have upon new world natives?
Old world disease had a massive impact on the New World natives. Malaria and smallpox wiped out most of the Iroquois population. These diseases tormented the tribes for many years.
How important was the formation and development of Dutch trade system & involvement?
The formation and development of the Dutch trade system and involvement became very important at Fort Orange, where the French colonist and the native Iroquois needed each other to maintain the traders from what is now the Netherlands.
In the new world the French brought the militant Jesuits to catholicize the new world. Did it work?
Militant Jesuits were unable to succeed in converting the New World to Catholicism. The natives slaughtered those who tried to convert them as well as their followers.
Finally, how did destruction befall the organized settling of the new world
Destruction befalls the organized settling of the New World due to the conflict inside the Iroquois. While the other native groups saw the Iroquois as united and destructive, whenever they won massive victories or took captives, the Iroquois caused division amongst themselves due to the captives keeping their ideas as well as their identity. Trade, alliance and war intertwined the natives and colonists in a way that historians could not have predicted.
Part Two: The Colonies
Chapter Six: Virginia 1570-1650
Who were the promoters and what did they desire to do?
The promoters were private adventurers who were issued licenses to explore and conquest for the pursuit of profit. Promoters such as the West Country men desired to achieve what they listed as their 3 major goals 1. to plant Christian religion 2. to traffick and 3. to conquer.
What was the social composition of the Virginia colony?
The Virginia colony consisted of the Indians of Virginia, the poor and unemployed, the thieves and the rich government authorities. The authorities were sent by Parliament to whip the colony into shape, but hanging vagrants and thieves did nothing to stop the anxiety that reigned in the colony.
Who were the “sturdy beggars”?
Sturdy beggars were those who were negatively affected by the colonial promoters plan to reform the colony of Virginia. They became unemployed and homeless due to the increased wealth and production. The government took the common land that these peasants used to work on, causing them to go hungry and lose their work.
What does the map reveal about the topography and land/water ratio of the Chesapeake
The map shows that the land/water ratio was at least 60/40 and that many rivers from Chesapeake Bay ventured into the deep into the mainland, even as far as the mountains that were up near Maryland.
What was the role of Roanoke?
The role of the Roanoke was to be a small island that English colonists could settle on and be safe from Spanish attack due to the dangerous obstacles ships had to avoid to get to the island. However, mistreating the local Indians on Roanoke failed the colonists and they eventually abandoned the island.
Who was Powhatan? What is the character of the Native Americans in the area?
Powhatan was a major chief of about 30 tribes that contained approximately 24,000 Indians. He was able to rule over all of them because of how they were unified by the Algonquin language. The Native Americans in this area moved quite a bit and divided tasks along genders.
There are 8 paragraphs in the above section, what is topic of each paragraph?
The Powhatan Indians saw the colonists as both friend and foe
Powhatan tries to figure out how to use the colonists to his advantage
The English colonists saw the Indians as savages, devil-worshipers, and overall a complete negative.
The English believed that their workers longed to run off and seek equality with the Indians.
The colonists decide not to destroy the Indians and instead use them as menials
The English did not send missionaries to convert the Virginia Indians
Virginia promoters insist on plantations being placed on most of the settled lands in Virginia.
The English believe that their methods would improve living and the Indians therefore had no right to resist.
What was the encounter of Powhatan Indians and colonies? According to Taylor, who had the higher culture upon the encounter of the two peoples?
The Powhatan Indians and colonies both did not exactly know what to think of each other. Both of them saw each other as both friend and foe, someone who could be used to their own advantage, but also someone who needed to be destroyed. According to Taylor, the Indians had the higher culture upon the encounter of the two people.
Jamestown becomes significant because: 1)___, 2)___, 3)___, 4)___
Everyone who went to Jamestown were wealthy or the low lives of society
Virginia colony sent people over to Jamestown as well as resources
It was named after the new King James
Gold would eventually the destruction of the colony
What was the cause of violence?
The cause of violence was that the colonists expected the Indians to feed them, disregarding the
Indians own needs. Therefore, if they were pushed too hard, the Indians killed the colonists.
What is the significance of tobacco? Discuss this in detail.
The significance of tobacco was that it became a product that would sell for a high price back in England. This product took the Virginia Company off the verge of bankruptcy, but caused the population of colonists to grow and for the Indians to be treated poorly once again. War was then broken out between the Indians and the Virginians.
Chapter Seven—Chesapeake Colonies
What significant difference is there from Virginia to the Chesapeake Colonies? Which were they?
The significant difference between the Virginia and Chesapeake Colonies was that the Virginia colony, according to the historian Edward S. Morgan, developed elite rule, popular politics and white racial supremacy.
What does it mean to be a commonwealth?
A commonwealth was the fourth and most intimate tier of government which concerned the family household. Each one had a monarch (either a married man or widow) and servants counted as kin. The married men represented the family outside the household as well as supervised and disciplined the members of the commonwealth.
Why are labor, health, and profit the driving motives of Chesapeake settlers?
Labor, health and profit are the driving motives of the Chesapeake settlers because without any of these three important things, there would be no settlement. Without labor, no houses or food. Without health, there would be no people. Without profit, there would be no motivation.
What sources of labor were there in the Chesapeake?
Sources of labor in the Chesapeake were tobacco sowing, weeding, transplanting, and maintaining as well as loading trade ships. This is where most hungry people found food and shelter who lacked those basic needs. Females primarily worked as housekeepers and maid servants. Free emigrants became councilors, assembly men, and justices.
Why is prosperity a concern of the area? What is there about the class structure? Discuss the five tiered pyramid.
Prosperity was a concern for the area because once there was social mobility, there was no progress due to the advantage that the wealthier plantation owners had because they could buy more plantations and workers when land became available. Therefore, the gap between the classes widened and the Chesapeake became a land of great wealth and increasing poverty.
Tier 1: Wealthy Planters
Tier 2: Freed Servants/Farmers
Tier 3: Laborers
Tier 4: Common Planters
Tier 5: Slaves
Rebellion—why did it come? For how long would it endure and remain an issue?
Nathanial Bacon gathered a group of prestigious planters against Governor Berkeley and his groups of planters. After Berkeley catered to the wealthy planters, Bacon recruited men amongst the common planters and servants promising that their troubles would be avenged. The rebellion began in 1676 and in September of the same year, the governor was run out of town. Bacon burned Jamestown, however died shortly after. In December and January, his rebellion died as well. However, the crown acknowledged that the Virginia elite was not worthy of its power and disapproved the exactions of the planter elite.
What significance can be attached to the frontier? Who was this character Berkeley?
Governor Berkeley was a man who gathered the wealthiest and most ambitious planters, who monopolized the major and lucrative public offices. These people he handed out frontierland to, in which he helped himself by helping the wealthy. The common planters were barely able to obtain their own farms in 1665 due to this, which became the roots of the Bacon rebellion.
Who were the great planters? Where did they come from? How and why did this arrangement come about?
The great planters were a people who felt compelled to build a popular political base by becoming more social with the smaller planters. These great planters from Virginia became compelled to make this arrangement when Sir Herbert Jeffreys came from England and intended to repay the common planters at the expense of the great planters. Therefore, the leading Virginians showed higher authority and took the initiative to represent all white, free Virginians against the crown. When the assembly then tried to gain more popularity by lowering the poll tax, the role of Virginia government flipped itself, causing the common planters to look at the wealthy as their protectors.
What were the characteristics of the planters?
The planters were known for their generosity, hospitality, and respect. They also were known to party, gamble, and drink, causing them to also be viewed as shallow.
Discuss the whole issue of the coming of slavery—why, when, from where, and for what purpose?
Slavery occured due to the declining supply of white laborers. Since the relationship between the wealthy and the common folk improved, lives improved, allowing less people to be used as strictly laborers. Therefore, the colonists turned to slaves from Africa during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century to work on their plantations. Slave trade became a large market in the economy and the amount of Africans in the colonies increased, causing concern for some colonists. As their numbers increased, masters of slaves used pain and fear to motivate them.
Chapter Eight—New England:
Define the area of land commonly referred to as New England. See map p.163 Why is the etching of Richard Mather so important to the development of the territory of the northeast?
The area of land commonly known as New England consists of the colonies New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine and Massachusetts. The land was known to be cold and rocky, yet have many ports on the coast of the Atlantic. The sketch of Richard Mather is important to the development of the northeast because Richard Mather was a Puritan minister and the Puritans settled in New England in order to glorify God. Everything they built from mills to workshops were for Him.
Analyze and identify the Puritan values of the period and place?
The Puritan values were to work hard to honor their God and to seek rewards that offer reassurance that God approved of their efforts. These values drove the colonists to survive in a land that was treacherous. They thanked God for leading the to a land where they had to work hard. Their values also are the roots of the commercialism in seventeenth century New England.
Who were the “Puritans”? Why are they so incredibly important to the study of American history?
The Puritans were people who left the Church of England and were determined to purify the Protestant faith. They journeyed to America to share and preach the Gospel in their own way and settled in New England. They seeked New Birth, a transformation of the soul involving divine grace and had many beliefs that allowed them to not only survive but thrive in America. The Puritans are incredibly important the study of American history because their work and determination left a mark on America. Their work ethic, educational beliefs and family beliefs all are still relevant in modern day.
Why were the Puritans concerned with a: Theocracy? Education? Morality? Were they as bad as contemporary writers have alleged? Or, are modernist engaging presentism as a value judgment?
Theocracy was important to the Puritans because of its religious connection. God was extremely important to them, in fact He was their drive. They wished to have the word of God spread to everyone, therefore they wanted to set up a system of education that taught the next generations about their colony and its morals that lead to its success.
Why were Puritans concerned over the British Monarchy? Also, with the Anglican Church?
The Puritans were concerned over the British monarchy because the merger of church and state in a hierarchical manner gave every religious problem some political aspect. Critics of those trying to seek religious purity became more common and devout believers started to want to change both the Church of England and its society. Furthermore, the Anglican Church became ” a mingle – mangle” of Protestant and Catholic practices. This caused Puritans to divide over the details of each practice. Puritans sought to recover the original and pure church of Jesus Christ.
What was the “Great Migration all about?”
The Great Migration was the most significant of the Puritan emigrations to New England. The Great Migration came about due to the dissolve of Parliament in 1629, causing Puritans to consider emigrating to the New World. John Smith of Jamestown promoted the land, exploring the coast and calling it New England due to its similarities to the mother country. John Winthrop lead a group of over 14,000 emigrants to New England in order to escape the government issues in England.
Can you explain the religion and profit issues of New England.
The religion and profit issues of New England originated from their ideas to keep religion and profit hand in hand. This caused conflict within themselves, due to either the worsening of the economy in the late 1620s as well as their view on those who were poor in spiritual terms instead of economic.
Why did New England attract a different set of immigrants from the Old World?
New England attracted an unusual set of emigrants; those skilled people who usually stayed home rather than risk their lives traveling to an unknown land. However, because New England was a land without many plantations and servants, who were regular emigrants, these people had a safe bet settling in the New England colonies where life was longer, healthier, and popular.
What was the advantage of climate and population ratio more beneficial than in the Chesapeake?
The advantage of the climate and population ratio was more beneficial than in the Chesapeake because it was cooler there with a shorter growing season. Its topography also discouraged malaria and other disease that affected southern farmers. The hard labor of the north also helped permit longer and healthier lives. These aspects of New England were attractive and gained more emigrants than the Chesapeake colonies as well as kept those who had already settled there alive.
Discuss the relationship of land and labor in New England. What was the social relationship of Puritans?
The New England colonies granted men to those who wanted to band together to benefit the town, the opposite of the Chesapeake belief to hand out land to those in better financial shape. However, in order to make farms, colonists had to cut clearings in the forest, chop firewood, make fences build barns and houses, plant and plow fields, harvest and construct mills all from scratch and by hand. Therefore, land was easy to access, for each household was granted ten to fifty acres, but the labor was hard. The amount of land you received was based off of social status, yet even the poorest person in New England had a home, a field of their own, and cattle.
Analyze and compare and contrast family life in New England. Pay attention to the role of women.
Men conducted the heaviest work in the family which included clearing, constructing, taking care of livestock, and harvesting hay. Women maintained the home and the garde as well as took care of the children, made clothing, soap, butter, and cheese. When the husband was unable to do his work, the women did that as well. Marriage was understood to be both romantic and economic. Husbands were expected to govern their families as petty monarchs. No women could hold property. The Puritan family structure offered more authority, protection and respect for women than there was in the Chesapeake or old England. Women played a huge role in the oral circulation of news and children gradually helped at their own homes in their respective roles the older they got.
Why was commerce the major source of economic sustenance and development?
Commerce became the major source of economic sustenance and development in New England because before Oliver Cromwell wrote off New England as poor and cruel, the economy thrived off newcomers who brought currency that their capital used and then they consumed the crops that were already there. Therefore, in order to survive, commerce in the Atlantic networks began, especially fish trade. The fish was traded to Spain and Portugal to their Atlantic islands where it fed their slaves. The variety of crops grown in New England also made them popular throughout the empire. Those crops also started to be traded to the West Indies, allowing New England to reap the benefits of their wealthy economy.
Why was Massachusetts known as the “Bible Commonwealth” Why all the concern over education?
Massachusetts was known as the ” Bible Commonwealth” because the Puritans believed strongly in the teaching of God’s rule. They believed that if they should deviate from His will in any way, He would punish them as rebels, or Satan would win the battle with God for New England. Therefore, once Massachusetts received a printing press in 1640, religious instructions were received amongst New England. In 1650, Massachusetts had one minister for every 450 people and law required all inhabitants to attend religious lectures and Sunday services. Also, once Harvard was established as the first educational institution of English America, its graduates began to replace the original ministers.
What was the pull of puritans to the New World? From whence came the disputes ; discontent?
The pull of the puritans to the New World originated from people’s longing to realize their own ideal of a uniform society. However, greater dispute and discontent came from within the ranks of the Puritans as they couldn’t find success in their quest to be the perfect society.
Why was there such a flap over the Witchcraft issue? Where did it occur?
When strange things happened to people with really no logical explanation, witchcraft was often considered the answer. Due to their religious beliefs, they considered to these events to be of supernatural meaning, often being correlated with the Devil. These sort of events took place all over New England, but most events occured in the Virginia colonies or in Salem, Massachusetts.
For what reason was there declension according to Alan Taylor? Was the declension myth or fact?
According to Alan Taylor, there was declension because even though they had adapted with their environment, the New England colonists refused to find comfort in the fact this progress affected how pure they were. The declension, however, was a myth.
Chapter Nine—Puritans and Indians:
Alan Taylor in this chapter reveals an insightful awareness of the culture and contributions of the Natives. Give a bulleted list of his concerns:
While the men are out hunting for food, the fields would be worked by the women
The Natives did not leave any land uncared for
The Natives only planted what would get them through the months of summer and winter
The Natives land was constantly being taken from them by colonists when they came to settle
Despite their land being taken, the colonists gave the Natives an opportunity to make a good profit by selling them the tools they needed to survive
What was the issue of property? What was meant by tribute? Were the natives exploited? Why?
By not clearing their forests, the colonists came to believe that the Natives were not using their land to its full potential. When the colonists cleared the forests themselves, all the animals the Natives had been hunting for food abandoned the area, making the Natives extremely angry. Occasions when trade between Native Americans and colonists occurred were referred to as tribute. The colonists, being greedy, took advantage of the Native Americans and made unfair trades with them that benefited themselves.
Discuss the issues and causes of the Pequot War.
The Pequot War began as a result of the colonists wanting heavy tribute in wampum, Native children, and suspects accused of killing a trader in an attempt to extend their authority and land. When they were rejected, the Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Plymouth colonies declared war and attacked a village beside the Mystic River in May of 1637. Only 5 survivors remained in the town of over 400 inhabitants of mostly women and children. The Indian allies of the colonists were appalled by their ferocious nature, and turned on them. Still, only half of the prewar Pequot survived. Most were killed or taken hostage. The Indians failed to unite under one unity, therefore they did not stand a chance against the united colonists.
What was the deal about “praying towns?” What did it purport to do?
Praying towns purpose was to have a safe place to do missionary work without being interrupted, distracted, or threatened by other colonists. Not only was it a safe place to do missionary work but also it allowed the colonists to keep tabs on the small bands of Natives that inhabited the towns and actively try to persuade them over to their religion. In order to become recognized as English, the Indians had to give up their culture entirely.
Why 1676 did war break out as “King Philip’s War?” It eventually became what type of war?
War broke out in 1676 between the Native Americans and the colonists because the colonists hung three Natives for killing an Indian from a prayer town. After this happened, the Indians had a civil war start between tribes. Rebels lashed out on their own and burned colonial homes. The Indians had a technological advantage with the flintlock, allowing them to kill in massive numbers. The Indians use of guerilla warfare gave them a huge advantage over the colonists. This shocked the New England colonists as well as brought down their confidence. By losing the war, it became hard to recruit more colonists to their aid. Angry colonists took to killing the prayer town Indians, considering them spies. The colonists took up Indian allies, who taught them how to avoid ambushes and to use guerilla warfare by being stealth and ambush the enemy. The Indians eventually ran out of gunpowder and food, and took to plundering villages. But the colonists cut off their supply and eventually the rebellion died.
What ultimate end came as victory, and yet, end in defeat?
Even though the colonists won the war, the Indians destroyed their fields and towns, and took their food Plus, this war made the colonists lose valuable assets when it came to survival. As a result of these events, the English brought new people and resettled towns.
Chapter Ten—The West Indies:
In this chapter Taylor takes us off the mainland continent of North America to explore the West Indies—Why? What was the motivation?
The West Indies were a very wealthy colony that exported sugar, which many men were able to become rich off of due to its impact on everyday life and its price was significant. Slaves were extremely popular on sugar plantations.
What significance does he attach to Barbados? Discuss or bullet several points!
Barbados was unique because of the thousands of pigs that were located on the island. The pigs were extremely valuable to the early colonists due to their food resource but the early colonists wasted their pigs and therefore destroyed all their herds.
The development of the sugar industry became the major economic back-bone of Indies—why?
The development of the sugar industry became the major economic back-bone of Indies because og how expensive the sugar was and how much it was exported.
What is revealing to the reader from the map of the West Indies?
Many of the islands discovered and settled in the West Indies were by the early English empire. To the English, the islands provided ports for trade and are still primarily English speaking islands.
Discuss the major demand for the use of slavery, from whence did it come and who benefitted? Give multiple ideas for Taylor’s arguments and analysis:
Slaves were used to work on a multitude of plantations due to the mass of people needed to pick all the crops. Picking mostly sugar, criminals, convicts and other lower insocierty were shipped into the islands to pick the crops that were to be exported. This was also the beginning of slavery of Africans in America.
Taylor boldly declares that sugar was a rich man’s crop. Why, what demand did have outside the western hemisphere? Why the need for commercialization and hence colonization?
Sugar was extremely expensive to grow even though it brought in a good amount of money in exports. This is why many rich men were the leaders of the sugar industry due to the fact that the machinery was expensive and the knowledge and work needed was only accessible by wealthy people. Sugar was a huge export because the English used it in their ever so precious tea.
Discuss the planter aristocracy. Analyze the social strata for the West Indies population.
In the West Indies the social classes were as followed: the elite and wealthy planters, the common slaves, and the slaves. The planter aristocracy consisted of a group of very important men that made a mass amount of money due to the West Indies plantations. The group bought plantations that were dying and could not provide export any longer. In exchange for helping out their company, the group acquired more land.
Finally, what does Taylor have to say about the importance of Jamaica? What is his central argument?
When people had to leave Barbados, they looked for a place to settle. The Jamaicans welcolmed them with great pleasure and were rewarded with much more sugar than was ever produced previously on Barbados.
Chapter Eleven—Carolinas—A Century of Develop: (1670-1760)
What is the general area covered by the Carolinas as Taylor lays it out on the map 1740? The large coastal area south of Virginia, east of the Appalachian Mountains, north of Florida and of course encased by the Atlantic Ocean. What was economic, political, social, cultural, and environmental character of this great swath of land during the century identified?
Who were the colonists? Why did they come, what was their environmental fate?
The colonists who originally settled in the Carolinas were planters from the West Indies who named the colony Carolinas after their King Charles II during the 1670s.
Why does Taylor have a section in which he discusses the gun trade?
Indians gave advice to the colonists in exchange for their guns and gunpowder. Their advice consisted of how to plant as well as control the slaves that were imported from Africa.
Raiders—what is being revealed about these groups?
Raiders, Western Indians native to the Iroquoian, killed off all of the Cusabo people.
Just as sugar was the crop of the West Indies, so did rice become the crop of Carolinas? Why?
Rice became the crop of Carolinas just as sugar was the one of the West Indies due to the amount it was grown and how it could thrive in the temperatures of the South.
What good reasons does Taylor have for discussing “terror” in the territory?
There was an idea amongst the white people that due to the mass number of slaves that were being imported into the Americas, they would unify and turn on their owners throughout the New World. Not only would the English empire lose all of the people that they had sent over to be settled, they would also los all the land and money that was being made for them. The slave rebellion would undo everything that the English empire had spent a long time achieving.
Finally, the issue of Georgia is discussed. What role does Oglethorpe play?
Oglethorpe was the leader of the colonists who first settled in Georgia. Finally deciding the settle in Savannah Georgia, he was known as the leader of Georgia as well as the leader of the Georgia Trustees.
What is Taylor’s final conclusion about this area during this century?
Settlers that were looking for land could find it easily in Georgia and Carolina.
Chapter Twelve—Middle Colonies—The 17th Century of Development:
Concurrently with the development of New England there came an equally significant establishment in the area we will now call the “Middle Colonies”
The Middle Colonies were the colonies already described in the book, such as the New England, Chesapeake, and Virginia colonies.
Between the Chesapeake and New England a multicultural, racial and ethnic diverse society established itself—why? From the broad Hudson River, West to the Appalachian Mtns, south to Virginia boundary lay an area of land with a new vibrant economy and a diverse society developed—why?
The Middle Colonies was an accepting region that took in people who were seeking religious tolerance. The environment was friendly and was welcoming to all. Due to the religious freedom, the area attracted people of many different races, and societies.
What was Taylor’s assessment of the Dutch Empire?
The Dutch Empire became a strong empire as well as a wealthy one due to its trade. They were smart and tactful, using sugar to the best of its ability.
Why can this be called the Germanic area of development? Was it more than just ethnic culture of central Europeans to establish this area?
Because there was many Germans that settled in this area, they led the development giving it this name. Scandinavians also settled there therefore it was not only central European countries.
Make a list of Dutch (New Netherland) contributions to the area: (bullet points)
What was the status of religious dissenters in the Middle Colonies?
Religious dissenters were accepted in the Middle Colonies, and they were treated as equals.
How many nations, cultures, and languages were brought together to form the diverse culture?
The Middle Colonies accepted people from Belgium, France, Scandinavia, and especially Germany. Some European languages, some English languages as well as some African languages were spoken.
Why did “New Netherlands” falter? What vacuum was created by it? How did England become the heir of the territories?
They started to bash heads with the English, therefore the English sent ships and took over
What was the issue involved in the conquest? Discuss the “covenant chain?”
The covenant chain was when the English took over the Dutch trade when they acquired New Netherlands. The issue involved the English not allowing those who wanted to speak Dutch be able to do so.
What is the background account for establishing New Jersey?
The Duke of York gave land to English nobles and they established the land. They then gave the land to the Scottish and Quakers who also settled.
More important, how did Pennsylvania become the center of the Middle Colonies?
Pennsylvania became the center of the Middle Colonies because Pennsylvania had a warmer climate and a ratio of men to women that was appealing. Therefore, the population grew significantly.
What was the status of religion in the Middle Colonies? This is detailed section—why?
The religion in the Middle Colonies varied greatly due to the religious tolerance the Middle Colonies provided. This is detailed section due to its importance to the development, settlement, and cultural diffusion exhibited in the Middle Colonies.
What argument can be made of Taylor’s contention that there was widespread diversity?
The area attracted a lot of diversity which supported Taylor’s opinion that this was essential to the settlement of the region.
Part Three: The Empires: SECOND HALF OF BOOK
Chapter Thirteen—The Revolutions: 1685-1730 Hereafter follow the topics Taylor discusses with the student whose job is to outline (with great detail) why they are historically significant and what impact they had on colonial development
Dominion – The New England colonies were not cooperating with the crowns expectation, therefore the English created an area made up of New York, New England and New Jersey known as the dominion.
Glorious Revolution – The Glorious Revolution was a ” spontaneous uprising by a united English people” led by a foreign army and navy. William, the Dutch Prince of Orange, wanted to take England for an alliance. He attempted to take England and in doing so, most of the officers joined him, which ran King James to France. The Dutch occupied London and Parliament placed the power of reign into the hands of William and Mary, who cooperaated with parliament and held an Anglican establishment.
Resolution – Resolution
Men and Money – Nine years of war between the English and the French cost them many troops and lots of cash. The French always hard the English and the feelings were mutual until the beginning of the World Wars where they became allies.
Colonial and Indian War –
War of Spanish Succession –
Commerce and Empire –
Finally, does Taylor buy into John Adams argument that the revolution began in the hearts and minds of the colonists long before the war broke out? Explain.
Chapter Fourteen—The Atlantic Empire 1700-1780
News—what was it?
Conclusions—what are they?
Chapter Fifteen—Awakenings: 1700-1775
Growth and Limits
Old Lights vs New Lights—who was what?
Chapter Sixteen—French in America 1650-1750
Emigrants – Emigrants were crucial to the development of many French settlements. They started heading towards Canada, which was significant to the French due to it being the headquarters of their fur trade. In an attempt to keep themselves from going bankrupt, the government decided to stop selling furs in 1673. This action pushed emigrants away from the New World.
Geography – The St. Lawrence River, huge part of living in the French settlement of America. Great food and water source, however due to the length of the cold and windy conditions throughout the year, the river was often frozen. This made trade and expeditions extremely difficult.
Opportunity – The attraction to go to the New French America other than be have a better state of living was that women’s rights were relevant. Land was accessible to them and they could hunt just as much as men. These ideas began the roots of women’s rights becoming relevant.
Authority – The authority of the French crown still had a hold on those who traveled to the New French America, therefore making them still under the reign of Louis XIV. Louis XIV appointed government positions there such as a governor, a bishop and others. The control exhibited from across the ocean sparked the idea of rebellion.
The Upper Country – The Upper Country was unique in the sense that its ability to keep Indians and the colonists from taking advantage of one another. A land of mostly forests, Indians and colonists both wanted it for their respective reasons. Therefore, conflict was often a result of these feuds. However, the development of camps for the Indians to hide in when they needed to caused violence to decrease.
Louisiana – The French colony of Louisiana was one that was essential to the French trade with the Indians. Weapons were often traded as well as furs, even though the weather and climate was extremely humid. Slaves were also extremely important to those who followed Sieur de La Salle’s lead and settled in Louisiana. They were constantly shipped into the colony in much larger numbers than any other social class especially the soldiers, making war difficult. However, plantations could not be set up, and the fishing was so unpredictable that the economy kept plummeting. This colony encouraged differentiating races, leading to the ideas of inequality between humans.
Rebels and Allies – The Louisiana colony was placed into two very different landscapes; one for taken over by the Indians and a small plantation core controlled by settlers. In the land of the Indians, the settlers there tried to become friends with the Indians, yet in the plantation core, the Natives were treated poorly. When the settlers tried to expand up north with livestock and tobacco plantations, the Natchez, who controlled the northern part of the Mississippi River, killed the livestock invading their land. The settlers demanded tribute, and in response, the Natchez rose up against the French. The French allied with the Choctaw to help defend Louisiana, therefore solidifying their alliance.
Chapter Seventeen—The Great Plains 1680-1800
Villagers and Nomads
The Bread Basket of the World
Horses and guns
Comanche and Apache
The Northern Plains
Chapter Eighteen—Imperial Wars and Crisis 1739-1775:
Balance of Power
Seven Years War
Empire of liberty
Chapter Nineteen—The Pacific 1760- 1820
Finally, as you complete the book, please address the following:
Minor Concepts: These require adequate identification of the topic at hand; a bullet-type listing
of your information is acceptable.
• 93. Dominion
• 94. Glorious Revolution
• 95. Mayflower Compact
• 96. Maryland Toleration Act of 1649
• 97. Men and Money
• 98. Colonial and Indian War
• 99. War of Spanish Succession
• 100. Pirates
• 101. English Immigrants
• 102. Germans
• 103. Scots
• 104. Pluralism
• 105. Unitarianism
• 106. House of Commons
• 107. Proprietary Colony
• 108. Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina
• 109. Pennsylvania’s Charter of Privileges
• 110. Leisler Rebellion
• 111. Bacon’s Rebellion
• 112. Differences indentured servitude and slavery
• 113. Reasons for colonial resistance of English expectations
• 114. Coureurs de bois
• 115. Town meeting
Major Concepts: These require a thorough, thoughtful, and organized explanation of the topic at
hand. These may be written in detailed outline form, linking each subtopic into the main point clearly and with detail and analysis.
• 116. Great Awakening
• A. Revivals
• B. Whitefield (George)
• C. Old Lights vs New Lights—who was what?
• D. Radicals
• E. Southern Revivals
• F. Race
• G. Legacies
• 117. French in America
o A. Geography
o B. Opportunity
o C. Authority
o D. The Upper Country
o E. Louisiana
o F. Rebels and Allies
o G. Dependence