1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is a lifelong process. In this process, teachers play an important
role. For this purpose, teachers must be equipped with necessary knowledge,
attitude, behavior and skills. In fact, they require performing their tasks effectively
in the classroom according to the situation. However, unfortunately Teacher
Education, in Pakistan has remained the most neglected sector of our national
system of education. In spite of the fact that each educational policy since 1947 to-
date have emphasized the need for improving teacher education programs (Bregm&
Muhammad, 1998).

The problems of employed women will vary with the nature of job, sector in
which she is working and doing their jobs. Fairly large proportion of teaching
community is comprised of female teachers, which is one of the major service
sectors chosen by women in the Pakistan state (Yasmeen, 2005). In this study, the
researcher interested in finding out the problems that the beginning teachers faced in
the first six of their professional carrier. The purpose of the study is not only
defining the beginning teachers’ problems but also examining how to overcome
these problems. The female teacher faces many challenges and often have many
problems. Teaching is a profession where 30% to 50% leave teaching, after facing
these problems (Hover ; yeager, 2004). So, the earlier years of a teacher’s
experience can affect directly whether the teacher continues teaching profession or
choice to any other profession (Rivkin & hanushek 2005). The study of teacher

2

problems has a long history. Common problems of beginning teachers has been the
subject of my study .For a female teacher’s first six month on the job is often
difficult. This time is hard not only on students, but also on the teachers themselves.
The extraordinary need for more teachers comes at a time in which the demands on
teachers are increasing. Schools are expected to serve an increasingly diverse
population and to provide more educational and other services to students and their
families than ever before. These new teachers will teach in a wide variety of
contexts and settings. They will teach in urban, rural, and suburban schools. They
will teach the rich, the middle class, and the poor. They will teach students who are
more ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse than any country in the world
(Christina Cara, 2006). They will teach students who have strong family support
and a caring, nurturing environment, and many who lack this support system. They
will teach students at a variety of ability levels and with a variety of learning needs.
At the very time the teachers who found themselves for the challenges and
complexities of the teaching profession.

The eight problems perceived most often are classroom discipline,
motivating students, dealing with individual differences, assessing students’ work,
relationships with parents, organization of class work, insufficient and/or inadequate
teaching materials and supplies, and dealing with problems of individual students.
Overall, The eight areas of potential challenges and concerns of new teachers are
Personal ,Professional, Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment, Relationships with
Students and Focus on Student Learning, Organizational Systems for the Teacher,
the Classroom, and Students, ,Collegial Interactions, Parents and Community
(Grant, 2006).

3

The initial years of service are generally considered to be the first six
months to five years of teaching. We have come to think of these years as the
induction period, or the time in which the teacher becomes more familiar with their
job responsibilities, the work setting, and professional norms and expectations
(Paula, 2006). The entry period is a crucial time in the development of a teacher.
We can leave teachers to struggle or get by as best they can during this period, or
we can structure and guide this entry period so that it is a period of rich, continued
learning and development that leads to success and expert practice. Induction
programs have been developed as a way to effectively and thoughtfully introduce
new teachers to their responsibilities and bring newcomers into the profession. The
goal of systematically planned program of induction is to help new teachers not just
survive, but to succeed.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It has been observed that many teachers leave their profession soon after
joining because of many reasons not-withstanding academic and professional
training. This study focused on the problems faced by female teachers in the first six
months of their career in district Abbottabad.

1.3 Research Objectives

The objectives of research were:

1. To identify the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of
their career.

2. To provide necessary suggestions to overcome those problems.

4

1.4 Research Questions

In finding out the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of their
career in district Abbottabad, the following research questions were formulated.

1. What are the problems faced by female primary school teachers?

2. What are the causes of the problems of female primary school teachers?

3. What measures should be taken to overcome all the problems?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is significant in the sense that; it will provide help to the administration,
policy makers and teachers themselves. This study will also provide help to
Secretaries, Directors, E.D.Os and other educational officers to know the problems
which are usually faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career. It
will help to bring reforms for the improvement of educational system. Objectives of
education can be achieved and implemented in the best manner. Teachers will
perform their services well and to full satisfaction. The study will provide basis for
further researchers in the field of education. So the standard of education can only
be raised by solution of problems faced by beginning female teachers. It needs
serious attention of the Government, society and department of education.

1.6 Delimitation of the Study

The findings of this present study were subject to the following limitations:

1. The study area was confined to only one district that is district Abbottabad.
Thus the results of study were applicable only to similar kind of situation.

2. The study was based on a certain time period (i.e. six months).

5

3. Because of limitation of time and other resources involved in research, the
present study was restricted to a limited number of samples that is taken
from ten government schools and ten private schools of district Abbottabad.

1.7 Hypotheses

The teachers faced the problems:

1. of transportation

2. Mostly time management of class.

3. Dealing with dull student and extra ordinary students.

4. As a result of Frequent Transfers.

5. As a result of lack of Physical and Learning Resources.

6. As a result of lack of Community Involvement, parents not understanding
the teacher statement related to their Childs.

7. As a result of Overloaded Classes at the same time.

8. Due to lack of staff members.

1.8 Research Methodology

An effort was made to study the problems faced by the female teacher in the first six
months of their carrier in district Abbottabad. This Research presents the methods
used while conducting the present research study which includes overall design of
the study, study period, population, Sample selection, and development of
questionnaires, pilot testing of questionnaires, data collection procedure, and data
analysis. To conduct this study district Abbottabad was selected as major area of
study.

6

1.8.1 Population

Population of this study included the newly appointed teachers in district
Abbottabad.

1.8.2 Sampling

For Sample selection, ten government school and ten privates schools were taken
from district Abbottabad.

1.8.3 Research Instrument

In present study pretested and standardized questionnaires were used as research
tool. It was prepared to collect responses on the problems faced by female teachers
in the first six months of their career. The questionnaire was developed by the
researcher after a comprehensive review of the related literature and by the guidance
of supervisor. The questionnaire comprised of 17 questions related to required
study. The language of the questions was very simple, tangible and clear so that
there may be no ambiguity in comprehension or interpretation. Each questions
carried five options for answers. Strongly agree, agreed, in difference, disagreed,
and strongly disagreed.

1.8.4 Data collection

Before administering the questionnaires permission was obtained from school head
teachers. The questionnaires were administrated in April, 2018.With the help of
school head teachers, researcher surveyed the newly appointed teachers of school
and filling the responses after asking the question in loud voice.

1.8.5 Data Analysis

The analyzed data was interpreted to have meaningful finding. Percentage of new
teachers responses for each items in the questionnaires were analyzed in order to

7

determine the items that were given the most importance with respect to the
problems faced by newly appointed teachers in school. Conclusion was drawn from
these findings and finally on the basis of finding and conclusion, recommendation
was made for the implementation of this study.

1.9 Operational Definitions

School: It means an institution where children get education.

Facilities: Something that permits the easier performance of an action, course of

conduct, etc.

Sampling: In research terms a sample is a group of people, objects, or items that
are taken from a larger population for measurement.

Community: A group of people living in the same place or having a particular
characteristic in common.

8

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Education is development and a key to success. Existing scientific and technological
development can only be attributed to education (Bregman and Muhammad, 1998).
The standard of education of a country determines its position among the other
nations of the world. In this regard countries with high achievements in the fields of
education and research lead the world. Education influences living standard as it
turns the population of a country into useful human capital and works as an agent of
positive change (Hoodbhoy, 1998). However, it is worth noting that teachers, as
builders of the nation, hold an essential role in the process of education. In this sense
the quality and standards of education are strongly associated with the quality and
effectiveness of its teachers. Unfortunately in Pakistan very little attention has been
paid to the education sector in general and the recruitment of quality teachers in
particular. Resultantly, Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rate and quality
educations (Farooq, 1990). This study attempts to examine the problems faced by
school teachers such as, academic, employment and promotion procedure,
administrative and power structure, financial, training, curriculum, parental
relations, and examination in district Abbottabad located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
province of Pakistan.

2.1 Problems as a Result of Prevailing Society

We are living in a society where every one of us like their daughters/women
to be treated and taught by female nurse and teacher but intensively hate and dislike

9

our women/girls/female to part in education or services hence the matter seems
quite ambiguous.

2.2 Problems as a Result of Economic Conditions

Owing to getting a smaller amount of financial support, the side of education
system has remained the most under paid and poor in performance especially in
female. This fact has rendered the education sector as the most unattractive
profession in the country. Teacher community, being the most finically poor in
society, often look for other sources of earning such as going abroad for working
and run their own businesses at the cost of their professional integrity (Zafar, 2003).
In this regard teachers are less motivated towards and take least interest in their
school duties. In many cases teachers get salaries without attending the schools
because of their businesses. This has retarded the process of quality teaching and
learning in schools (Shahzadi and Perveen, 2002).

2.3 Problems as a Result of Household Activities

Sometimes due to huge family and laborious work the female teachers
become so busy and involved that she does not pay full attention to school and
teaching profession although government has done much to uplift the miser and pity
conditions of teachers but still much efforts and determination is required to
overcome this problem (Riasatat,el,2005).

2.4 Problems as a Result of Frequent Transfers

Female Teachers in Pakistani schools are constantly at the sweet will of
education officers and school administration. The transfers are usually made on the
basis of favoritism and nepotism. Due to this practice most of the teachers remain in
high mental agony, disturbance and pressures (Khan, 1980). Often transfers to

10

remote areas are made to teach a lesson to the teachers who are either disobedient or
have affiliation with opposing political party. Sometimes the newly transferred
teachers do not find enough time to get adjusted to the new environment. The
practice of frequent transfer of teachers creates not only disturbances for the female
teachers itself but for their families, children but also affects the quality of schooling
and learning in the girls schools (Farooq, 1993).

2.5 Problems as a Result of Political Interference

Education system of Pakistan now a day’s very highly politicized. In
common cases teachers are inducted on the basis of their political affiliations rather
than on merit, who often serve as political workers instead of performing their
professional duties. If a teacher has no political affiliation to any political party then
it is very hard to maintain his present place and position. Similarly due to political
tie in the education sector, over and over again the established process of selection is
despoiled. These politically chosen ineffectual teachers become a permanent burden
on the economy and a cause of the fall down of the educational system (Shah,
2003). Further, their illegal promotions and politics in the schools get in the way the
educational progress in terms of quality schooling and learning as well as expose the
spirit of dexterity among the teaching society. It is also important to point out here
that often teachers who do not pay attention to the dictations of the political actors
are harshly punished in social or financial terms and sometimes transferred to far-
flung areas especially hard for female teachers. This lack of professional freedom of
female teachers has deficiently exaggerated the degree of success of their duties.
They work with slightest curiosity and motivation (Saleem, 2002).

11

2.6 The Problems as a Result lack of Physical ; learning Resources

The lack of teaching and learning aids in schools creates difficulties in the
teaching process especially for female. Some girl’s schools even do not have basic
aids such as black boards, attendance registers, offices, libraries, laboratories and
up-to-date books. Even the majority of schools have lack of classrooms. In majority
of girls schools there are no proper playgrounds for the physical development of
students and teachers (Qureshi, 2002). This has created more monstrous problems
for female teachers as they cannot provide the students wider opportunities for
learning and development. Since teachers are expected to cover courses well in
time, however, in the given conditions they fail to create meaningful learning
environment in schools (Hussain, 2001).

2.7 Problems as a Result of Social Recognition

According to Rehman (2002) teaching is considered the most important and
critical position in the entire education systems well as a deferential professions in
all societies of the world. It is considered one of the main pillars of a society
(Adams, 1998). In some countries teaching is taken as the most honorable and
lucrative profession. In developed nations teachers are adored and occupy a
reverential social position in society. However, in Pakistan teachers, particularly
school teachers, in theory are exalted but the reality is the other way round. In
Pakistan, teaching Profession does not enjoy a great social status in the society.
Teaching is considered the most underpaid and less attractive profession as
compared to other professions like medical or engineering and so on. Malik (1991)
discovered that in Pakistan the social status of teachers is accepted only at the extent

12

of Holy Scripture. For example, ideologically teaching is deemed as the prophetic
profession and teachers as the promoters of prophetic job. However, in practice this
does not exist. Teachers stand at the last edge of the social ladder in society. This
phenomenon has decreased the self-esteem of teachers. In these conditions the
profession of teaching is the most little attractive field of service for the youth.
Normally teaching is the last option in the priority list of different professions.

2.8 Problems as a Result of Community Involvement

Teachers are not given due respect in their society that is why teaching
profession is constantly losing its respect and qualified people join other
professions. Only people having low caliber and ability join teaching profession

.Schools are community in miniature. Teachers are important change agents,
mentors and academic leaders of the society. In Pakistani, government, schools the
concept of parental participation is very poor. Teachers normally face negative
remarks form the parents’ side as any (badly) performance of the students is related
to the performance of the teachers only (Muhammad, 2002). Students who fail or
show low marks in the examination, the teachers are held responsible for this
without realizing that the performance of the students is associated with the role of
school administration, parents and teachers. It is injustice to only hold teachers
responsible for the bad results of the students in examination and so on. There is
lack of awareness on the part of the parents and community that parents and
community is equal stakeholder in the development of the student (Illahi, 1986).

2.9 Problems as a Result of Lodging and Amenities

Government does not give any housing lodging to female primary school
teachers. Female teachers posted in far-flung areas or outstations where they had to

13

face the problem of lodging and protection. Especially female teachers cannot have
enough money to rent out houses on the money which is given to them and by a
hair’s breadth make their living. Due to non- availability of executive housing
female teachers make extended absentees and are not capable to carry out their
duties with complete concentration and happiness (Government of Punjab, 2004).

Accommodation is a major irritant in the sound family life of teachers. Due
to absence of official accommodation, majority of the time of a teacher is spent in
finding an accommodation. It has been observed that when finally a teacher finds an
accommodation his next transfer is almost due. Due to which teacher greatly
disturbed. It has been experimental that female teachers who are posted in far-off
areas are more worried in return transfer to their close stations from the time of
transfer to the school. This practice depressingly affects the recital of the female
teachers which leads to commotion and mental agonies.

2.10 Problems as a Result of Male Clerical and Class-4 Staff

This is another alarming issue in most of our female schools. Firstly there is
hardly clerical staff present in female schools. If it is present somehow in their
schools it is in the shape of men and every ones know that female feel hesitance
dealing with men in the Islamic society, similarly class-4 staff seldom present in
female schools if present so it is in the form of men which very hard for female
teachers to cope with men rather than female class-4 (Hussain, 2001).

2.11 Problems as a Result of Overloaded Classes

According to Khalid (1998) the out of reach working circumstances in
Pakistani schools have added to teacher suffer exhaustion. There are no measures of
work in some schools either due to the ignorance of the administration or laps on the

14

part of female teachers to find out the procedure of work. In the mass of schools,
mostly in far-flung areas, there is being short of female teaching staff. This
overburdens other teachers in the schools. In view of Saleem (2002) this situation
has increased more pressures on the teachers who become prone to physical
discomforts. In this situation the teachers try to cover the syllabus at the cost of the
quality in teaching and learning. Teachers cannot pay individual attention to many
students which is a great psychological and social need of students.

2.12 Problems as a Result of Professional Development

The success of any educational system depends on good and well-
resourced teachers. Teachers cannot be replaced with any other kind of instructional
material .Teaching is a profession which needs frequent updating. In this view
female teachers should be alert of the new changes happening in the humanity and
around the world. Likewise they need to be continuously abreast with latest
theories, research and other addition to the pool of knowledge. It has been observed
that female teachers who are not competently sound and upgraded are not able to
handle with the diverse changes and variations in the society, country and the
humanity at large. On the contrary female teachers who obtain latest knowledge and
develop their skills can effectively manage the process of teaching and learning.
They teach and learn better (Farooq, 1990).

Effective female teachers require being successful learners as well.
Nevertheless, the professional development of female teachers has not been given
any appropriate concentration in Pakistan. Resultantly, female teachers are
establishing feeble in solving students ‘academic and societal harms. Additional, it
is experimental that students graduating from the (government) schools have

15

deprived communication skills and find it hard to contract with problems of life. As
Students in Pakistanis schools remember the concepts for examination rationale;
they are short of investigative, deep and decisive skills like their teachers. This
circumstance has exaggerated the generally degree of quality of education in the
country (British Council, 1988).

2.13 Problems as a Result of School Culture

Relationship and coordination amongst female teachers and with their
executive staff is vital for creating an atmosphere of reliance and efficacy. Be short
of friendly relations affects the process of effective schooling and learning. The
negative effects of politics in Pakistani schools have extremely exaggerated the
cooperative guts amongst teaching community. In some cases principals or head
teachers give favors to only those female teachers who admit their dictations
without any hesitation and appraisal. Teachers who question them or ask for more
support are deliberately overlooked and ignored. This perform has given birth to
suspect and de-motivates some of the teachers who hate smooth talk. Normally
school principals run schools like a kingdom, least encourage coordination among
the staff, and have lack of vision (Government of Pakistan, 2001). In schools there is
a culture of backbiting, slurring, tormenting, pleasing and leg-pulling among the
teaching community, often leads to skirmishes. The final effects of this fall on the
students and quality of education. On the whole, due to this the procedure of quality
of education in the schools is deeply affected (Khalid, 1998).

2.14 Problems as a Result of Coordination and Cooperation

The system of education in Pakistan lacks a mechanism of coordination.

This problem has taken rots due to weak communication between the policy makers,

16

staff, parents and the community. The state of poor coordination in the system has
promoted misunderstandings between the stakeholders (Farooq, 1993). Teachers
remain at the receiving end in all areas, e.g., in making of curriculum or any other
education policy. Teachers participate only in the implementation not in the
development part. This ends up in the creation of a culture of blame-game. There is
even Lack of coordination between teachers and principals (Zafar, 2003).

2.15 Problems as a Result of Supervision

Rasheed, (2004) has found that there is a poor concept of supervision in
Pakistani schools. The process of supervision is filled with bureaucratic
underpinnings. In essence the purpose of supervision is to develop and improve the
performance of teachers and students. Conversely, in Pakistan the process of
supervision is characterized with the notion of inspection. Supervisors create an
environment of fear during the process of supervision (Mohanty, 990). The
supervisors behave like kings and treat the teachers like salves and inferiors. This
trend has created mistrust as well as affected the spirit of cooperation among the
teachers on one hand and teachers and administration on the other. The supervisors
instead of providing constructive feedback give orders to the teachers and hence no
improvement takes place (Khan, 1998).

2.16 Problems as a Result of Prevailing Curriculum

Curriculum development in Pakistan is a centralized activity. Curriculum is
developed and schools are supposed to implement it without any manipulation. In
this regard teachers’ role is that of implementer. They cannot contribute towards the
process of curriculum development and evaluation neither they are provided with
refresher courses to be in line with the updated syllabi (Hoodbhoy, 1998). This

17

tradition has left the teachers ignorant of many aspects of the curriculum which
ultimately affects not only their own performance but also the process of teaching
and learning in schools. In many cases teachers are not aware of the aims or goals of
the curriculum for certain levels. This creates gaps between understating of the
curriculum and its effective implementation. However, in developed countries
teachers are invited to participate in the process of the curriculum design and
development. Their inputs are considered vital for the right direction of the
education system (Government of Pakistan, 2001).

2.17 Problems as a Result of Classroom Management

The biggest challenge that surfaces for new teachers is classroom
management. A 2004 Public Agenda survey found that 85 percent of teachers
believed “new teachers are particularly unprepared for dealing with behavior
problems in their classrooms”. A separate survey of 500 teachers found that teachers
with three years or fewer on the job were more than twice as likely as teachers with
more experience (19 percent versus 7 percent) to say that student behavior was a
problem in their classrooms (Melnick & Meister, 2008).

2.18 Problems as a Result of Textbooks

Textbooks are a very important aspect of teaching and learning process
(Farooq, 1993). Textbook development is highly specialized area in curriculum
development. Female teachers in Pakistani girls’ schools face problem of instruction
due to non-availability of quality textbooks. There is a culture of multilingualism
and medium of instructions in schools. This creates an environment of uncertainty,
difficulty, fatigue and lack of understating both on the part of female teachers and
students. Moreover, there is lack of training of female teachers on how to smooth

18

the progress of or explain concepts from different textbooks (Hussain, 2001). This
lack of orientation has created confusion among female teachers which reflects in
their poor performances. Due to this female teachers as well as students are least
interested in the process of learning. As teachers are expected to cover the syllabus
before examination by all means, they, in order to overthrow the burden from their
head and due to lack of understanding, resort to only reading and preaching the
books without taking into account the vital aspects of schooling and learning such
as development of various skills (communication, analysis, reflection) of students
and enhancing their knowledge in an effective way (Khalid, 1998).

19

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

An effort was made to study the problems faced by the female teacher in the first six
months of their carrier in district Abbottabad. This chapter deals with the
methodology adopted for the study. This chapter presents the methods used while
conducting the present research study which includes overall design of the study,
study period, study population, Sample selection, and development of
questionnaires, pilot testing of questionnaires, data collection procedure, and data
analysis procedure. To conduct this study district Abbottabad was selected as major
area of study. This study was conducted from 15March to 15June.

3.1 Research Design

A descriptive study was carried out to assess the newly appointed teachers in district
Abbottabad. A cross-sectional Survey method was used in the study.

3.2 Population

Population of this study included the newly appointed teachers in district
Abbottabad. The Sample of the study consisted of newly appointed teachers who
faced some problems related to their field of teaching in district Abbottabad.

3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique

For this random sampling was used and a sample of 27 new teachers was brought
under study. For Sample selection, ten government schools and ten private’s schools
were taken from district Abbottabad.

20

3.4 Instrumentation

In the present study pretested and standardized questionnaires were used as research
tool. It was prepared to collect responses on the problems faced by female teachers
in the first six months of their career. The questionnaire was developed by the
researcher after a comprehensive review of the related literature and by the guidance
of supervisor. The questionnaire comprised of 17 questions related to required
study. The language of the questions was very simple, tangible and clear so that
there may be no ambiguity in comprehension or interpretation. Each questions
carried five options for answers. Strongly agree, agreed, in difference, disagreed,
and strongly disagreed.

3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument

Before data collection the questionnaire was validated through pilot testing before it
was administered on the sample. The researcher conducted a pilot testing to check
the validity and reliability of the research tool. Initially the questionnaire was
prepared with utmost care keeping in view the problems which were faced by the
female teachers in the first six months of their career. In this regard for the accuracy
of items it was checked by supervisor. After the amendments a pilot testing of the
instruments was conducted in order to find out limitations, if any, in the research
instruments. For this purpose, two schools i.e. Pine Hills Public High School for
Girls, Abbottabad and Government Girls High Secondary School, Abbottabad were
selected for pilot testing. The questionnaires were designed based on the pattern of
ACT council, were administered and collected from the newly appointed teachers,
five new teachers from each school. They were asked to fill in and comment on the
questionnaires.

21

3.6 Data Collection

Before administering the questionnaires permission was obtained from school head
teachers. The questionnaires were administrated in April, 2018.With the help of
school head teachers, researcher surveyed the newly appointed teachers of school
and filling the responses after asking the question in loud voice. The questionnaires
were personally filled after knowing their responses in order to elicit best possible
information from the respondent.

3.7 Data Analysis

The analyzed data was interpreted to have meaningful finding. Percentage of new
teachers responses for each items in the questionnaires were analyzed in order to
determine the items that were given the most importance with respect to the
problems faced by newly appointed teachers in school. Conclusion was drawn from
these findings and finally on the basis of finding and conclusion, recommendation
was made for the implementation of this study.

22

CHAPTER 4

DATA ANAYLYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

The present study aimed to identify the problems faced by female teachers in
the first six months of their career in district Abbottabad and to explore the
major causes behind these problems. This chapter deals with analysis and
interpretation of data, collected for study. The data of study was analyzed by
percentage and presented in the forms of tables as under.

Table 4.1: Personal problems of female teachers
Strongly In Strongly
Statements Agree Agree Different Disagree Disagree
1. Have you face
travelling problem? 44% 20% 8.3% 8% 4%
2. Face major problems,
where she has no
experience to teach. 20% 40%12% 8% 0%
3. Teacher face difficulty,
how to establish the
relationship with student
guardian. 52% 32% 8% 0.8% 0%
4. Teacher face problems,
as students take time to
understand the nature of
new teacher. 56% 25% 4% 12% 0%
5. Major task for teachers,
to change their personal
behavior or personality
according to the need of
class. 60% 25% 0% 2% 4%

The table (4.1) shows that in most cases the teacher responses were in favor of

agreed and strongly agreed in perceiving that mostly new teachers faced travelling

problems. Because their first posting area is not suitable for her to travel on daily

bases. Those teachers who faced travelling issues, that percentage ratio were 44%

23

fall under the strongly agreed responses in district Abbottabad. However, less
numbers of teachers (8.3%) have given neutral response regarding travelling issues.
Therefore on the other hand, teachers faced major problem is that where she has no
experience to teach; that is the beginning stage of teaching and 40% response fall
under agreed ratio of teachers that means teacher faced it at the starting of their
career. Mostly new teachers leave their profession because of that reason, when
realized that studying and teaching both are different things in education. Less
number of new teachers has given neutral responses that percentage ratios were 12%
and disagreed responses were 28% and no one respond strongly disagree to this
statement problem. Another personal problem of teachers is that how to establish the
relationship with student guardian, that mostly faced teachers at the beginning of
their teaching career. Obtained results indicates that majority of new teachers (52%)
given responses in strongly agreed and agree(25%) whereas 4% of teachers have
given neutral reactions but 12% shows disagree responses and on one fall under the
strongly disagree responses. Furthermore, an obtained result indicates that major
task for teachers (60%), to change their personality according to the need of class.
Hence 60% responses are strongly agreed and 25% are agreed responses and 2%
disagree and no one respond strongly agreed. Beside, majority teachers given
responses(56%) strongly agreed, in favor of that statement is student take time to
understand the nature of new teacher and 25% agreed responses. while no one given
neutral responses,4% given strongly disagreed respond.

24

Table 4.2: Academic problems faced by female teachers
Strongly In Strongly
Statements Agree Agree Different Disagree Disagree
1. School Head
Teacher’s attitude was
not good towards you at
the first meeting. 24% 25% 8% 40% 12%
2. Colleague teachers
don’t accept new teacher
easily. 24% 25% 8% 32% 12%
3. Duties and
responsibilities were not
properly defined. 36% 32% 8% 20% 4%

The table (4.2) indicates that, the respondent views varied greatly when researcher
asked about academic problems of newly appointed teachers. Their opinions were
different when they were questioned about various statements as given in table.2.In
finding that whether head teacher attitude toward good at first meeting? , than new
teachers responses were mostly against the statement they were strong agreed
around 24% and agreed ratio 25%. However, teachers have given 8% neutral
response. Hence, 40% teachers were not in favor of this statement and respond
disagree. Similarly 12% respondents have shown strongly disagreed. Likely for the
statement that is Colleague teacher don’t accept new teacher easily, the respondent
teachers opinions different. The new teachers were agreed 25% and strongly agreed
24% but neutral responses 8% while 32% teacher have shown disagree opinion,
only 12% show strongly disagreed responses. On the other hand, the newly
appointed teacher’s responses were mostly in the favor of this statement of problem.
When questioning about the statement i.e. duties and responsibility were not
properly defined in school. Hence the new teachers were strongly agreed response

25

36% and agreed responses 32%, neutral response 8% but disagreed responses are

20% as compare strongly disagree only 4%.

Table 4.3: Classroom problems faced by female teachers

Strongly In Strongly
Statements Agree Agree different Disagree Disagree
1. Classroom facility
inadequate. 44% 0.16% 12% 24% 4%
2. Face problems due to large
number of students (more
than fifty) in class. 36% 20% 0% 40% 4%
3. Do you face problems in
maintaining classroom
discipline? 36% 28% 0% 24% 8%
4. AV-Aids are not available. 48% 20% 4% 24% 4%
5. Two or more different
Grades students are combined
in a single class. 40% 8% 8% 28% 12%
6. Face difficulty, how to
deal with the problem of
individual student. 60% 16% 4% 24% 0%
7. Teacher face problem, in
dealing with dull or extra
ordinary bold students. 64% 16% 12% 4% 0%

The table (4.3) shows that in most cases the newly appointed teacher’s responses

were in favor of agreed and strongly agreed. Researcher asked about questions such

as consist on classroom problems i.e. student dealing problem, AV-Aids facility

problem, classroom facility lacking. Firstly, when asked about classroom facility

their responses were varied. Mostly new teachers were 44% strongly agree 0.16%

were agreed responses shown. Hence less number of responses consists on (12%)

neutral but disagreed responses 24% and only 4% shows strongly disagreed

responses. Likely for the statement ,that larger strength (more than fifty ) in class

were difficult task to teach for new teacher , because at the beginning of their career

teacher expected different e.g. she expected settled class, manageable strength,

easily controllable, obedient student, AV-Aids facility available for teaching etc.

26

But on some extent situation is different as compare she expected. So, Teachers
responses related strength Problem (36%) strongly agreed, 20% opinion were fall
under agree responses. Hence no one has given neutral response, but disagreed
response ratio were 40% that show improvement in this case. While strongly
disagreed ratio of respondent were 4% only. Similarly, new teacher’s responses
related matter of maintaining discipline 36% fall under strong agreed responses,
28% agreed ratio of teacher. While 8% respond in favor of strongly disagreed as
compare disagreed responses were 24%. In finding that, important case is AV-Aids
facility problem for new teachers, responses were (48%) strongly agreed as compare
strongly disagreed 4%.while agreed responses were consist of 4% as well neutral
responses are 4%.Another classroom problem is two or more different grades
students are combined in a single class. Hence, respondent opinion regarding
statement was 40% strongly agreed and agreed responses of new teachers were 8%.
While 12% strongly disagreed and only 8% have neutral opinions but 28% disagree
were shows that improvements occur in this case. On the other hand, in classroom
major problem is that; how to deal with problem of individual student. Collected
data reveals responses of newly teachers were 60% strongly agreed, 16% agreed
responses and neutral responses only 4%.However, no one respond strongly agree to
this statement. Likewise, dealing with dull and extra-ordinary student is the major
problem for newly teacher. In this case mostly new teachers (64%) in favor of
strongly agree and 16% in favor of agree. While, on the other hand, respondent who
showed disagree were 4% and neutral responses 12%.However, no one respond
strongly agree to this statement.

27

Table 4.4: Administrative problems faced by female teachers
Strongly In Strongly
Statements Agree Agree different Disagree Disagree
1. The new teachers is
not given any orientation
about teaching
techniques. 44% 14% 4% 24% 0%
2. Teacher are given
subjects for which they
are not inducted / posted. 64% 20% 12% 4% 0%

The table (4.4) shows that in most of cases; the newly appointed teachers are not
given any orientation about teaching techniques from the side of department or
administration. About mostly responses are in favor of (44%) strongly disagree, and
agree 14%.However,newly teachers have given 4% neutral response.Hence,24%
teachers were not in favor of this statement and respond disagree. while no one
respond strongly disagree to this statement. Additionally, in mostly situation new
teachers are given those subjects for which they are not inducted or posted. An
obtained result indicates that majority of new teachers faced these problems (64%)
give responses in favor of strongly agreed and 20% agreed. However, no one
respond strongly agreed to this statement. While 4% teacher opposed this statement
and 12% show neutral respond.

28

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary

The study was designed to find out the problems faced by female teachers in the
first six of their career in district Abbottabad. The objectives of the study were (a) to
identify the problems faced by female teachers in the first six months of their career

(b) to provide necessary suggestions to overcome those problems. The Sample of
the study consisted of 27 newly appointed teachers who faced some problems
related to their field of teaching in district Abbottabad. For Sample selection, ten
government schools and ten private schools were taken from district Abbottabad. As
a research instrument, questionnaire was developed for newly appointed teachers.
The questionnaires were distributed and collected from the respondent by the
researcher personally, and tried to the best in the collection of data from the
respondents.

5.2 Findings

The main findings of the study are as follows:

1. Majority of new female teachers working in different levels are facing
Personal, Professional and Academic problems.

2. As the personal problems were discussed travelling related problems are more
prevalent. Majority of the new teachers were faced travelling problems, their
first posting area is not suitable for them to travel on daily bases.

29

3. On the other hand, new teacher faced major problem where she has no
experience to teach. Majority of the new teacher realized that studying and
teaching both are different aspects of education.

4. In personal problem, majority of the new teachers faced major task in class, to
change their personality according to the need of class and so teachers
complete destroy their own personality due to that adopted teaching
profession.

5. As per classroom problems were discussed, majority of the new teachers
agreed that proper classroom facility is not available in school as well AV-
Aids facility is not provided.

6. As per departmental reputation was noted that the respondents are less
motivated towards this profession because of less facilities and less salary as
compared to the other professions in the state.

7. Political influence and frequent transfers from one place to other is also the
problem for new female teachers especially at primary level. So this problem
cause uncomfortable environment for female teachers to perform their duties
and sometimes result in termination.

8. Geographical conditions also create problems for female teachers when they
are posted in far-flung areas and they do not have accommodation facilities for
female’s staff, so they face transportation and protection problems as well.

9. Due to political intervention in the procedure of appointments, under qualified
female teachers are appointed who cannot effectively manage the process of
schooling and learning in schools even they are not well qualified for this post.

10. Pupil–teacher ratio, over burdened syllabus, unnecessary emphasis on clerical
works, documentation and evaluation, evaluation of fairly large number of

30

students, loss of working days, the tension caused by the existing system of
education, lack of enough reference materials, inadequate support from
colleagues and head of the institution, inadequate in-service training etc are the
major professional problems of majority of teachers.

11. Shortage of resources in schools renders the new female teachers helpless
while they need different aids to enhance learning. There are no training
facilities available to professionally equip the new female teachers to improve
their teaching skills.

12. The study also concluded that female teachers are overburdened with extra
classes due to shortage of female staff in the schools.

13. The study also investigated that master servant environment and political
grouping in this level of schooling also the main problem to hinder the
teaching and learning environment. This type of situation also affected the
quality of education.

5.3 Discussion

Present study was designed in order to identify the problems faced by the
female teachers in the first six months of their career in district Abbottabad.
Through research tool (i.e. questionnaire) the collected data reveals that in most of
cases the new teachers responses were in favor of agreed and strongly agreed in
perceiving that mostly new teachers face those personal problems which are
mentioned in table (4.1). It is evident from table (4.1) that in district Abbottabad
around 44% strongly agreed responses had travelling issues. However, lesser
number of new teachers (8.3%) has given neutral responses. Therefore on the other
hand, 40% responses fall under agreed ratio of new teacher related to inexperience
in teaching. Gallup (1984) has asserted that real education is possible if parents
constantly monitor what occurs

31

in school and classrooms and cooperate and assist the teachers. Likewise another
personal problem of new teacher is that how to established the relationship with
student’s guardian. Obtained results indicate that 52% of new teacher strongly
agreed with this statement and only few new teachers had given neutral reactions
(12%). Furthermore, an obtained result indicates that 56% teacher strongly agreed
that student take time to understand the nature of new teacher and therefore new
teacher personally suffers from it.

In this study, the respondent views varied greatly when researcher asked
about the academic problems of newly appointed teachers. Their opinions were
different when they were questioned about various statements as given in table
(4.2). It is examined that majority of new teachers were not in favor of the statement
related to the head teacher’s behavior, and colleagues. So, strongly agreed responses
only (24% and 25%) were collected as compared to disagree responses (40% and
32%).It was shows that head teachers and colleagues behavior toward new teacher
was improved and positive.

This Study also throws light on the classroom issues that is AV-Aids were
not available, inadequate Classroom facilities, discipline maintaining problem, two
or more different grades students were combined in a single class, dealing in class
with dull or extra ordinary students. Muhammad (2002) Primary education in
Pakistan is faced with acute problem of lack of learning resources. This trend is
more constant in government schools where even schools do not have boards,
textbook, library and other related learning resources to help teachers and students
in the process of teaching and learning. It is evident from table (4.3), which reveals
that percentage ratio of majority new teachers agreed or strongly agreed .i.e. (44%,
48%, 40%, 36% and 60% or 64%). Hence no one have given neutral responses but

32

only few new teachers disagreed and strongly disagreed i.e. (12%, 8% and 4%).In
addition to, this study reveals that in most of cases the new teacher had no guideline
or any orientation about teaching techniques from the side of department. Most of
the responses were in favor of (44%) strongly agreed and agreed responses (14%)
while no one respond strongly disagreed. Ornstein (1980) concluded that one of the
major aspects of teacher’s problem was inadequate salaries and lack of promotional
opportunities. Although teachers’ salaries are presently increasing as compared to
past but they are still less than of those of many other professional groups.

Furthermore, obtained result indicates that majority of teachers face
administrative problem, that is mostly new teachers are given those subjects for
which they were not appointed. To conclude that, Farber (1991) in his book “Crisis
in Education” has stated the problems, stresses and issues of teachers. He describes
low pay of teachers, urban social disintegration, lack of parental community
support, community and social apathy, lack of public support, bureaucratic
interferences, violent and miserable nature of schools, pressures over them, lack of
administrative support, lack of respect and appreciation, no teaching rewards and
incentives, lack of teachers rights, status, goals and work overload etc.

5.4 Conclusion

1. The purpose of this study was to explore the problems faced by female teachers
in the first six months of their career in District Abbottabad located in Khyber-
Pakhtunkhwa through a critical review of literature.

2. The study fulfilled that overall system of education in Pakistan is affected by
versatile issues; however, female teachers occupy a central role in this state of
affairs. In this regard it was noted that there is lack of motivation among female

33

teachers towards teaching profession due to smaller amount facilities in this
career. Female teachers get lesser salary as compared to other professionals in
the country.

3. Moreover, female teachers are frequently transferred from one place to another
on the basis of preferential treatment and bias, thereby making them tormented
and gloomy.

4. The study also concluded that there are no facilities of accommodation for
female teachers posted in far-flung or outstations. Due to political intervention
in the procedure of assortment, under qualified female teachers are appointed
who cannot effectively manage the process of schooling and learning in
schools.

5. The study also concluded that female teachers are overburdened with extra
classes due to shortage of female staff in the girls’ schools. Be short of
resources in girls schools render the female teachers helpless while they need
different aids for schooling and learning. There are no training facilities
available to professionally update the female teachers to improve their teaching
skills.

6. The on hand study further explored that in girls schools, head teacher in most
cases create master servant environment which makes the female teachers feel
estranged from the system. Political groupings in female schools have
defectively affected the bond between teachers and head teachers. This has also
grimly exaggerated the procedure of quality of education in especially in girls’
schools.

34

5.5 Recommendations

Keeping in mind the findings of this ongoing study it is recommended that the
problems of new female teachers in district Abbottabad located in Khyber-
Pakhtunkhwa and Pakistan in general should be tackled down through the following
ways.

1. The new female teachers regardless of the level of teaching face personnel,
social and professional problems, which surely influence their physical as well
as mental health issues and suffering from physical and mental stress may not
be able to engage in creative activities. Since, woman is very important
component of the family as well as for society, it is necessary to ease their
problems in a time bound manner.

2. System of self reliance and independence should be improved in the school
systems, the resources and trainings for new female teachers must be enhanced
to increase performance in schools.

3. Teaching is the profession of full responsibility and accountability to build the
new generation. So, teachers should be academically highly qualified and
trained to improve the quality of education. Training and refresher courses of
school should be better to boost the recital.

4. Healthy physical activities should be promoted for female sector to enhance the
healthy education environment since a working person must have to strive for
the family as well as for the institution, adequate support is essential from the
family and social groups.

35

5. Education department rules and policies need to be polished and implemented
effectively to eradicate political interference which disturbs the school system
and female teachers especially.

6. New female teachers should be properly trained to proper planning and time
management also, which will help them to find time for breakfast, relaxation,
exercises as well as for official works.

7. Pupil–teacher ratio should be maintained to reduce the pressure on teachers and
to increase the working efficiency. Examination system needs to be improved
and made effective as per international standards. So that the status of this
department is elevated to stimulate the layman to join this department.

8. To increase the satisfaction and performance of the teaching sector selection of
qualified people with teaching experience should be ensured. Hence, it is
suggested that at some point in the process of selection or appointments of
female teachers merit should be strictly kept in mind.

9. Keeping in views of respondents Curriculum needs to be revisited, evaluated
and revised to overcome the pressure on the female teacher community and
teachers should be properly trained accordingly.

10. It is suggested that Female Teachers’ involvement in the curriculum
development should be boost up. This will increase the excellence of education
in schools. For this reason, it is suggested that female teachers should be
directly involved in the process of curriculum development.

11. The financial support to primary schools needs to be increased. Resources of
teaching and learning need to be increased at the primary level to relax the state
of mind.

36

12. Medium of instruction in the schools is needed to be improved. Teachers
should be trained in the languages especially in English and Urdu. It will help
the female staff to bridge the communication gaps for smooth development in
education sector.

13. Unnecessary documentation is another important area which also overburden
the teaching community, because it takes away the time for preparation and
instruction. Qualified persons should be inducted to improve the quality of
teaching and learning rather that file works and record keeping alternative of
this purpose is computer based documentations should be introduced to save
the time and energy .

14. In order to improve the quality in education and to divide the load on teachers
especially at primary level, number of teachers per schools should to be
increased and to train them effectively on continuous basis.

15. It is observed that the Law of Teaching Service should be established that
teachers must be evaluated based on professional teaching standards rather than
the personal relations, in order to achieve required quality in education.
Positive motivations and rewards should be introduced for the primary level
teaching community. On the other hand to enhance the capacity of the system
to work effectively tough system of accountability need to be introduced.

37

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ashraf, M. (1983). “An Evaluation of Existing Supervision Practices in Pakistan.”
p. 120-126). Lahore:

Bregman, J. & Muhammad, N. (1998). “Primary and Secondary Education
Structural Issues”. (pp.23-31) Islamabad: Jan Publications

British Council (The) (1988). “Survey on Teacher Training in Pakistan.” Islamabad:
The British Council Educational Contracts Department Overseas
development Authority.

Christina Cara, (2006). Insights from the Prospects study of elementary schools?
Teachers College Record, 104, 1525-1567

Farooq, R. A. (1990). “A Survey Study of Teacher Training in Pakistan. Academy
of Educational Planning and Management”, Ministry of Education.
Islamabad

Farooq, R.A (1993). “Education system of Pakistan: Issuesand Problems”. Asia
society for promotion of Innovation and Reforms in Education. Islamabad:
Pakistan pp.10-20

Government of Pakistan (GoP) (1998). “National Education Policy 1998-2010.”

Islamabad.

Government of Pakistan (2001). “Technical group Meeting on Devolution and
Decentralization, Implementation for the Education Sector.” Ministry of
Education, Islamabad, Pakistan

38

Government of Punjab. (2004). “Standard Manual, Elementary, Secondary and

Higher

Grant ( 2006).Challenges facing beginning history teachers: An exploratory study

.international journal of social Education ,19(1),8-26

Hayes, L.D. (1987). “The Crises of Education in Pakistan.”Lahore: Vanguard Books

Hoodbhoy, P. (1998). “Education and the State: Fifty Yearsof Pakistan”.

Karachi: Oxford UniversityPress.

Hover & yeager, (2004) Teacher Education for Sustainability in Pakistan. Journal
on Innovation and Sustainability, 6 (1), 13-19.

Hussain, S.A. (2001). “Education in Pakistan”. Allama Iqbal Open University.
Islamabad, Pakistan pp.1-12

Illahi, M.A (1986). “The Role of the Heads of Secondary Schools.” (Unpublished
thesis)

Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad. Pakistan, pp. 12-22.

Khalid, T. (1998). “Education: An Introduction to Educational Philosophy and
History”.

Khan, M.A. (1998). “An Appraisal of Supervisory Practices in the Schools of
District

Attock”. (Unpublished thesis), University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi,
Pakistan. pp.33-45

Khan, M.S (1980). “Educational Administration,” AshishPublishing House, H-12,
Rajouri Garden, New Delhi India.pp.23-34

39

Khan, N.I (1992). Evaluation of the Administrative structure of high (secondary)
schools in Punjab. (Unpublished thesis). The University of Punjab, Lahore,
Pakistan. pp.11-22

Malik, S.R (1991). “The System of Education in Pakistan”.National Book
Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan. pp.13-20

Ministry of Education Government of Punjab (2002). “Examination and Continuous
Assessment”. Lahore: Directorate of Staff Development National Book
Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan pp.22.35.

Mohanty, B. (1990). “School Administration and Supervision”. Deep and Deep
Publication. Rajouri Garden, New Delhi, India. pp.20-33

Muhammad, M. (2002). “Decentralization of Education System in Sind: A Critical
Review. Ministry of Education, “Islamabad, Pakistan. pp.10-18

Paula, (2006). “Challenges and concerns of new Teachers”. mentoring in the 21st
century September 2006.Reproduced with permission of just ASK
publication &professional Development

Qureshi, S. (2002). “Decentralization to District Level.”Ministry of Education,
Islamabad, Pakistan. pp.31-40

Rasheed, M. (2004). “Educational Administration and Supervision”. Allama Iqbal
Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Pp.145-166

Rehman, J.U (2002). “Devolution and Decentralization: Identification of Progress
in Implementation in Education”. Ministry of Education. pp. 233-240

Rivkin & hanushek, (2005)Teacher, school, and academic achievement,
Econometrica,73(2),417-458.

40

Saleem, M. (2002). “Facts and figures”. Agha Khan Gee Printers, Islamabad,
Pakistan. pp.07-

Secondary Schools”. Education Department, Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, pp. 10

Shah, D. (2003). “Decentralization in the Education System of Pakistan: Policies
and Strategies”. Academy of educational Planning Management. Islamabad,
Pakistan.Pp.18-23

Shahzadi, R & Perveen, K (2002). “An Evaluation of New Educational Structure”.
(Unpublished thesis). The University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. pp. 65-68

Yasmeen, (2005). Quality and excellence in teacher education: issues & challenges
in India. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(7), 388-397

Zafar, M. (2003). “Fiscal Devolution in Education”. Case study Reflecting Initial
Responses. Ministry of Education, Islamabad, Pakistan. Pp.34-41

41

APPENDIX “I”

QUESTIONNAIRE:

THE SURVEY FOR THE PURPOSE OF COLLECTING DATA
RELATED TO THE PROBLEMS FACED BY FEMALE
TEACHERS IN THE FIRST SIX MONTHS OF THEIR CAREER
IN DISTRICT ABBOTTABAD

INSTRUCTIONS:
The questionnaire contains seventeen questions. Please
complete the following questions to reflect your opinions
as accurately as possible and to answer factual questions
to the best of your knowledge. All responses will be
compiled together and analyzed as a group. I appreciated
your co-operation.

Researcher Name

Ramla Sehrish Rehman

42

Name of Teacher: ……………………………… Gender: . ………………………

Scale of Teacher: ……………………………….. District: …………………………

Date: ………………………..

Questions Strongly Agree In Disagree Strongly
Agree different Disagree
1.Have you faced
travelling problems?

2.School Head
Teacher’s attitude
was not good toward
you at the first
meeting.
3.Colleague teachers
don’t accepted new
teacher easily.
4.Duties and
responsibilities were
not properly defined.
5. Classroom facility
inadequate.
6. Face problems due
to large number of
students( more than
fifty) in class.
7. Do you Face
problems in
maintaining
classroom discipline?
8. AV Aids are not
available.
9. Two or more
different grades
students are
combined in a single
class.

43

10.Teachers are given
subjects for which
they are not
industed/posted.
11.The new teacher is
not given any
orientation about
teaching techniques.
12.Face major
problems,where she
has no experience to
teach.
13. Face
difficulity,how to deal
with the problem of
individual student.
14. Teacher face
difficulty, how to
establish the
relationship with
student guardian.
15. Teacher face
problem,as students
take time to
understand the nature
of new teacher.
16. Major task for
teachers,to change
their personal
behavior or
personality according
to the need of class.
17.Teacher face
problem, in dealing
with dull or extra
ordinary bold
students.

44

APPENDIX “II”

LIST OF SCHOOLS:

PRIVATE SCHOOLS:

1. Horizon Reach Montessori School Abbottabad.

2. New Vision Public School, Nawansher Abbottabad.

3. Sunrise Public High School, Nawansher Abbottabad

4. Orash Public High School Abbottabad.

5. Pine Hill Girls High school Abbottabad

6. Al-Imtiaz Acadmey High school Abbottabad

7. Jinnah public High school Abbottabad

8. Furniter Public High school, Nawansher Abbottabad

9. The City Public school Abbottabad.

10. Al Rehman Acadmey, High School Abbottabad

GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS:

1. Govt. Girls High Secondary School, Nawansher Abbottabad.

2. Govt.Girls Primary School no.3 Nawansher Abbottabad

3. Govt Girls primary School no. 1 kuthwal.

4. Govt.Girls Primary School no.2 Nawansher Abbottabad

5. Govt.Girls Primary School no.1 Nawansher Abbottabad

6. Govt.Girl .Primary School thandachoa Abbottabad.

7. Govt.Girls Higher Secondary School no.1 Abbottabad

45

8. Govt.Girls Primary School Comprehensive Abbottabad.

9. Govt. Girls higher Secondary School Comprehensive Abbottabad.

10. Govt. Girls Primary School Careem Pura Abbottabad.

46